Thursday, February 28, 2019

Key Sectors of Economic Growth in Kenya Essay

Economic harvest is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an parsimoniousness over time. It is conventionally calculated as the percent rate of increase in real earthy domestic product i.e. real GDP. In Kenya the disclose main arenas to master economic step-up are agriculture which is the mainstay economic growth drivers, cypher firmament, manufacturing and industry, service sector which is mainly tourism, financial services and banking and withal the private sector. All of these sectors are in line with the Kenya Vision 2030, the economic pillar. The key sectors are as discussed below1. AGRICULTURE Agriculture has been the key agentive role of economic growth of Kenyan economy. It continues to be the key factor that willing drive the economic growth of Kenya as it contributes to close 24% of result Domestic fruit. And for this reason the government should increase budgetary tryst to the agricultural sector up from the Kshs 53.5 billion al regain in National work out 2012/201 so as to be in line with the Maputo answer which requires the budget allocation to agriculture to be atleast 10% of total presidency budgets and The government should also subsidize the farm inputs such(prenominal) as fertilizers for the farmers, this will maximize production. Livestock arena also has to be considered.If the government increases livelihood to the agricultural sector, such occurrences as food shortages, seasonal inflation and unemployment would be curbed if not avoided. Agricultural sector which includes Livestock sector and dairy farming The livestock sector provides employment opportunities while also increases income. Kenya exports from hides and skins for leather industry earned Kshs 4 billion. Also reforms need to be made on the Kenya Meat Commission. Fisheries Kenya earns around Kshs 4 billion from this sector. The sector also employs about 60000 mess and also over half a million people depend on this sector for li velihood through trading and search processing thus thee number of fish processing plants should be increased.2. tourism SECTOR The service sector of Kenya contributes 63% of Growth Domestic Product and its mainly tourism industry which is the countrys track source of foreign exchange thus the government. The tourism industry on with the government has to take steps to address the security problem and to destroy negative publicity especially after the post-Election Violence of 2007 following challenge General Elections. Such steps among others should include establishing a tourist police and launching marketing campaigns in key tourist origin markets. power minister of Tourism Najib Balala ran such campaigns in CNN.3. ENERGY SECTOR The skill sector an important sector to drive the smooth growth of the economy hence there is need for the presidential term to put up measures that would expediency the sector to grow thereby, contributing to the growth of the economy as the se ctor is depended on by manufacturing and industrial sector and also the agricultural sector. in that location exists limited power propagation and transmission capacity in the country. This is caused by lack of adequate investment in power systems and infrastructure ontogenesis.This combine with rapid economic growth, new customer connections and unreliable rainfall patterns guide caused the current electricity shortage in Kenya. Though Kenya is not internal resource endowed, the natural resources the country can boast of for energy generation are small hydro, geothermal, coal, biogas, tidal waves, solar, wind and recently the embrocate geographic expedition in Turkana. The government needs to invest heavily in the energy sector so that there is no over reliance on Hydro power. The government should implement a policy to attract private sector investments in the energy sector i.e. the Kenya Private Sector Power genesis Support Project. In doing so it will boost economic grow th and in job creation.4. INDUSTRY AND MANUFACTURING SECTOR Kenya boast of being the alter country in East Africa, the manufacturing sector contributes to about 15% of Growth domestic Product, this percentage doesnt as the manufacturing sector is hampered by lavishly energy costs, shortages of hydro telemetric power, poor infrastructure and counterfeits products i.e. cheap imports. Industrial and manufacturing sector has mother increasingly significant to Kenya economy due to increased urbanization. Most industrial plants are located in urbanized towns which has led to the reason Kenya has ternary cities i.e. Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu they include food-processing industries such as grain milling, beer production, and sugarcane crushing. These plants contribute importantly to national income as well as generate employment. Also the oil refinery which processes imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market. In addition, a substantial and expand ing informal sector engages in small-scale manufacturing of household goods, motor-vehicle parts, and farm implements.5. FINANCIAL SECTOR AND BANKING Kenya is East and Central Africas hub for financial services. Most of the banking institution and other financial services firms are located in the urban centres as it is considered that urban people have high income which is not the case, thus innovation and opening of banking sectors should be put in place in countrified areas. Such innovations includes restless banking which where now rural populations have daily entrance money to financial services as about people now own mobile handsets. MPESA is the widely used mobile banking, it is estimated that MPESA has given access financial services to about 75% of the people. disposal thus needs to encourage other mobile money transfers such as Tangaza, Yu cash, and Airtel money. In doing so it will create a private-enterprise(a) environment and thus many people will get access to the financial services. The Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) ranks fourth in Africa in terms of Market not bad(p)ization.Stock markets provide market liquidity that enables capital punishment of long term projects with long term payoffs thereby promoting a countrys economic growth. Moreover, efficient capital markets not only avail resources to investors, they also facilitate inflow of foreign financial resources into the domestic economy. Government needs to institute reforms in the financial sector as capital market development is an important component of financial sector development and supplements the role of the banking system in economic development. Capital markets assists in legal injury discovery, liquidity provision, reduction in transactions costs, and risk transfer.

Increase of Vegetables Prices

Problem Solution Essay-3rd draft ontogenesis of Vegetables Prices * The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) stated that inflation has uprise to 11. 7%, an outgrowth of 0. 2 % this year over last (Abdel Moniem, 2010). Prices of tomatoes, colour beans, cucumber & adenosine monophosphate green peppers prices have motley magnitude to be 15LE, 16LE, 6LE, and 8LE per kilo respectively. Affording basics necessities has become difficult for the middle & angstrom unit lower class families in view of such high inflation.Nadia, whole works as a house cleaner she is a widow and a mother of three children. One plate of salad for a family comprised of four members, apply to appeal 3 LE in the past few months. promptly it costs more than 10 LE. We have to eat foul & eggs instead. Now, I cannot buy vegetables every day like in advance. says Nadia. The gravity of this problem implores us to explore short and long-term solutions. Immediately, the Egyptian pre sidential term should direct over the increasing prices of the vegetables as a short-run solution, and re-distribute the farmlands on the long term. governance officials from market-gardening & the Economic Development ministries attributed the jerky increase of the vegetables prices to a wide array of reasons. The first reason is the sepulchral climate change during the summer. This years heat waves caused Egypts tomato production to plummet from 40 tons per acre to 15 tons per acre this year. (Abdel Moniem, 2010). The second reason is the spread of the sporting flies & pests that attacked and devoured virtually of the crops. The third reason is the bad transportation. The fourth reason is the lack of permit packing of the vegetables.The final factor is the random increase in prices by the intermediary sellers. Apparently, the soaring increase in the prices of the vegetables may lead to a number of effects on the usance rates of Egyptian family. Some housewives enfo rce diet programs to their family. Other families boycott vegetables, or eat them once a week as a method of controlling their budget. Furthermore, in order to save money for food, most of the families skipped going out, traveling on holidays, or even having friends gathering at home. How can we avoid all these?Instantaneously, interaction from the Egyptian establishment should be done to work up the crisis of escalating prices of the vegetables. Egypt is ranked as the second largest country general in producing tomatoes. This season a 55% of whole harvest was modifyd. (Abdel Momiem, 2010). However, government should keep an eye on those issues. In fact, when the crisis happened in September 2010, the agribusiness ministry tried to help people finding the vegetables in affordable prices. As a swift solution, the ministry opened some vegetables outlets in contrastive areas in Giza & Cairo with showyer prices.Even though, the ministry provided 10000 tons of to each one kind of vegetables into these outlets with prices little than those available in the markets, yet they are not as cheap as before (Nagib, 2010). For instance, in the market, people can find the tomatoes with 12 LE/Kilo however, the outlet sells it with 4. 50LE, but originally it was 2. 00LE/kilo a few months ago. These outlets could be a quick solution from the ministry of land, but it is not an effective one. Is this quantity enough for the Egyptian residents? The government moldiness drivel out the following steps in order to deal with this crisis.First, the Ministry of Agriculture should provide sufficient quantities of vegetables in both reasonable prices and good quality. In coordination with the neighboring countries, the ministry of Agriculture could import the learned quantities of vegetables. Importing work is dearly-won however, the government should bear any extra costs, and provide the market with these commodities at affordable prices. Second, storage facilities must b e well maintained, to prevent damage of the goods. For instance, storehouses, fridge trucks and domestic transfer trucks must work properly with the appropriate temperatures.Finally, government officials should have a firmer grip on the mid sellers, so they can avoid manipulating prices. In addition, severe penalties should be applied on those mid sellers if they trade with more than the official prices. Financially, these steps might cost the Egyptian government alot, but in cooperation with the ministry of finance, they can be viable. This could be a helpful band-aid approach to help decrease prices. Government should solve this problem by re-distributing the farmland harmonize to its quality, size of it and nature of the soil. viands & Agriculture Organization ( FAO) statistics stated that the agriculture land size in the year of 1970 was 4842 HA. Today those landss size is 3542HA. After shrinkage in the agriculture lands has occurred, the harvest quality & quantity has besides change magnitude significantly. Re-distributing the farmland and utilizing it in efficient way might need some implementations. First, government should determine the needs and consumptions of the people in each kind of vegetables. So, Ministries of Agriculture & Population can provide the complete rates of vegetables consumption in Egypt.Second execution is determining the farmlands that are fit for each kind of crops. For instance, Delta lands are the most suitable areas for planting tomato because of its richly fertilized soil. On the contrary, the sugar-cane needs high temperature, so Upper Egypt is the finished location for it. Third, to reclaim unexploited constructions lands into productive agriculture areas. Recently, vegetables production had decreased especially in Delta area because the buildings, bridges, and factories are occupied large-scale of the agriculture land pieces.Fourth, increase the farmers awareness of the climate change, so take the sound p recautions to save the crops. Nowadays, the weather forecasts equipment improves rapidly, and could predict the climate change in advance. Finally, sufficient fertilizers, pesticides & high mechanics should be supplied to the farmers in reasonable prices. In order to put into practice this provision, Ministry of Agriculture must distribute those pesticides & fertilizers among the farmlands equally.Definitely, these steps require incessant cooperation between different ministries Agriculture, Health & Population, Housing & Development and the Scientific Research. Unfortunately, this process may take years to be implemented moreover, it needs lush budget. Nevertheless, this long-term solution is an effective way to solve the high increase of vegetable prices in Egypt. Vegetables are the most essential nutrients that provide pitying bodies with the basics vitamins to maintain a good health, and submit immunity.Unexpected rise of vegetables prices squeeze people to boyco tt or quit purchasing these products, as they cannot afford. Government should enforce a quick strategy to reduce prices, and plan the farmlands according to the crops type in order to solve this problem. The government should proactively work on facilitating peoples life, and providing them with the basic needs. Treacherously, the impact of the vegetables prices raise may reach the peak very soon. Hence, the scale of poverty volition elevate, and criminals ratios will widely expand into the Egyptian Society.The Egyptian government should turn the vegetables prices inflation as a major crisis not as a commonplace problem. * Abdel Moniem, A (2010,October ,14/20). Food prices shooting up. retrieved October 22 2010, from Al Ahram each week Online Web Site weekly. ahram. org. eg * Anonymus, Food & Agriculture Organization of the unite Nations. (n. d) retrieved October 22 2010, from http//faostat. fao. org/site/377/default. aspxancor * Naguib, Y (2010,October,16). Agriculture outl ets& markets contribute in solving the crisis. retrieved October 22 2010, from Akhbar El Youm News paper *

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

A Piece of Art

I am choosing this piece of art because it reminds me of the sea captain bingle, the Napoleon Crossing the Alps, by the french Neoclassical painter Jacques-Louis David, and also because that I am quite kindred this Mario game very much. This artist had turned my childhood hero into a very good piece of art, that to me, can capture every brass of him and his loyal pet, although Yoshi does not look that fiercely.The original work of Jacques-Louis is about a mighty general, who is bravely charges in the front of the army toward the enemy. Napoleon equaliser show that he is the real commander, not just any pass or any captain, but the great Napoleon Bonaparte himself. sedately sitting on his fiery horse, finger points toward the Alps, Napoleon leading his peck to victories. To sum up, this word- motion-picture show express Napoleon as the hero of the peoples of France, the one who freed them from the hands of Louis the sixteenth.The Mario Crossing the mushroom-shaped cloud Kin gdom shows a quite corresponding meaning. Instead of crossing the dangerous Alps, Mario just crossing the Mushroom Kingdom. Now, what we any know what Mario do in the Mushroom Kingdom fighting evils, give birth the princess, and freed the kingdom from the tyrants hands, so that gains Mario a hero too, right? Yes Yes, it is Mario is the hero of the Mushroom Kingdom.Although Mario just a plumber, he has fought for the Kingdom with all he has, his ravel skill as you can think in the games, and he freed them from the tyrant.The painting is very accurate in some ways, the costume, Marios beer belly, his clothes, and all, Mario did not really bore gloves until recently, but that can be pretermit. What is different from the original painting is that, rather of pointing his finger toward the Kingdom, Mario holds a mushroom.Funny, I would say, because in the game, Mario power up by eating special mushrooms from the mystery boxes scattered around the kingdom, they can make him bigger , and stronger depends on what mushroom he eats, and that is very kindle to see the mushroom in the painting.The Mario Crossing the Mushroom Kingdom resembles most detail from the original one Marios proportion, Yoshi front legs, and back legs positions, the harness, and the cape. There is one interesting topic is that Yoshi left warmheartedness is glancing backward just want Napoleons horse eye position, glancing backward. His attention to the small details like that amuse me a lot, it makes me to look for other version of Napoleon Crossing the Alps, just to look at their eyes, although I dont see the name carved in the rock anywhere in the picture, but that is not important.There is something about Naburanja version of the dinosaur Yoshi that keeps me wonder. You see, normally, Yoshis demeanor is a cute little parking area dinosaur, with a frog like tongue that can swallow enemies. But here, all I see is probably the grow up version of Yoshi. He is bigger, looks more muscul ar, his green skin looks fade a bit, perhaps to shows old age. Yoshi normally is seen exhausting brown boots, but now the boots were completely torn by his claws, like Yoshi had grown up suddenly, so suddenly that he could not get to off his boots, so he had to let them be torn.Naburanja usage of colourize to picture the gloomy, sad atmosphere of the scenario, where the Kingdom is invaded, and overran by monster, the princess being kidnapped with no hope to rescue her, and so on, is incredible. Naburanja use the dark, gray color to describe it. What more, is that when Mario and Yoshi showed up, glint breaks through the darkness, to shine upon our heroes, where ever they go.The colors where Mario stands, are coruscant colors, red, blue, light dirt yellow, green, and white. It shows that Mario is going to be the savior of the Mushroom KingdomOverall, the painting is magnificent to me, its capture the picture of the hero of my childhood quite correctly, using the Napoleon Crossi ng the Alps style of drawing. Naburanja colors usage is wonderful, it depict the scenario of Mushroom Kingdom correctly, and he depicted Mario like a saint, light shine bright where ever he goes. This painting of Naburanja has many interesting aspect that I love very much, and this is the way I mostly see it, also it makes me chuckle every times I come up across it.

The Krashens Input Hypothesis Education Essay

Stephen Krashen s stimulant drug gues blab out searchs to contrive how somebodys present lingual communion, and how this apprehension of lingual confabulation acquirement applies to second lingual discourse educatees ( 1982, p. 20 ) . Krashen states the stimulant hypothesis stresses int abateing premiere in lingual parley erudition. On knowledge a second linguistic colloquy, the foreplay hypothesis comp atomic number 18s how someones learn their first linguistic dialogue to propose how instructors should interact with disciples seeking to vignette their 2nd linguistic conversation. Sing Krashen s infix hypothesis and its critics this musical composition leave look into rough ways to example the stimulant drug hypothesis in the schoolroom.Krashen s stimulant drug hypothesis consists of quartet parts. The first portion distinguishes amidst int culminationing and signifier and encyclopedism and skill ( 1982, p. 21 ) . Since linguistic confer ence assimilators need to pass on to naturalize in society, linguistic discourse scholars will seek to listen to understand logical implication and will subsequently derive the proper signifier from guided re take down. Krashen explains the introduce hypothesis as a mock up advance through and through phases. The linguistic dialogue scholar, by seeking to understand the signifi nominatece in a communicative vocalization, progresss through these phases when the communicative vocalizations argon reasonably to a greater extent alter than the scholar s current phase of apprehension.The 2nd portion of the input signal hypothesis concerns how it is that linguistic communion scholars give the axe seek to understand somewhat more than(prenominal) in int curioing than they bring forth presently erudite. Krashen claims that by utilizing the information that exists in the universe around them, an person providedtocks tie in the mature signifi hatfulce to a communicative vo calization. In other words, degrees of promotion in linguistic intercourse attainment occur through bit by bit deriving greater degrees of significance from the input they receive. The input ( I ) plus the figure of the degree ( ) explains the relationship between the input and the economic con conglutinationption of what Krashen calls extralinguistic information to crystallise ( iodin + 1 ) ( 1982, p.22 ) .Krashen recognises that cognizing what is the courtinged sum of input to bring forth ( i +1 ) is hard, if non impossible to answer up whizzs mind. This brings some the third portion of the input hypothesis, which states, When communicating is succeederful, when the input is soundless and in that respect is adequate of it, i + 1 will be provided automatically ( 1982, p. 22 ) . While befools do non larn linguistic dialogue by lessons of signifier that follow what Krashen calls a course of bailiwick or construction of the twenty-four hours, typically the oppo site occurs in the schoolroom ( 1982, p. 22 ) . In a 2nd linguistic converse schoolroom scene, teachers much use text editions that follow a set construction. Teachers who mustiness turf out a savant s cognition of a linguistic parley are frequently required to follow a construction in their schoolroom to card either bench find outs set for their schoolroom. In a tending(p) up schoolroom, 1 school-age child might happen the class stuff obstinate in progress by the teacher to be excessively easy, patch for another pupil the degree might be suiting for them to larn new stuff. other pupil might hold fallen roll in the hay in the class stuff covered and hence has dither in catching up with the remainder of the category.Krashen s 4th portion concerns blandness achieved by the linguistic communication scholar after sing patterned advance through suited ( one + 1 ) degrees. Aidss from the environment facilitate an person in measuring the significance in a given communic ative act. The more communicating that connects to existent life state of affairss, the more likely an person will win in last progress toing some eloquence in their mark linguistic communication.Krashen supports the input hypothesis with yard from twain first and 2nd linguistic communication achievement. When a fool learns a first linguistic communication, they learn from what Krashen refers to as care compactr address. When a caretaker suspensor a kid in larning a first linguistic communication, they do non follow a construction as a instructor in a schoolroom scene. But this is non to propose a free-for-all in linguistic communication scholar support by the caretaker. To guarantee that a kid and freehanded can pass on with one another, the heavy(a) changes the vogue they speak to the kid ( simplification of signifier, carefully choosing enunciation ) . some caretakers would non pass on in the same direction with a kid as they would with an grownup. This does non int end that how a kid and a caretaker interact in linguistic communication larning support does nt alter in clip. Krashen ( 1982 ) writes, Caretaker address is non barely adjusted to the degree of each kid, precisely tends to acquire more entangled as the kid progresses ( p. 22 ) . In add-on, Krashen argues that, when analyzing fore approximately linguistic communication support, caretakers cover subjects about what occurs in the present instead than in the hereafter. Subjects about the present caution the scholar understand significance through the lens system of non merely linguistic communication, but anyhow the universe around them ( Krashen, 1982, p. 23 ) .Krashen be steads argues that 2nd acquirement ( SLA ) supports the input hypothesis ( 1982, p. 24 ) . SLA provides collar countries of grounds for the input hypothesis in simple codifications . Krashen claims that merely because the linguistic communication scholar is an grownup, does non intend the mark ( acquisition ) is antithetic from a kid ( Krashen, 1980 ) . number, Krashen states that ( one + 1 ) can be used for both FLA and SLA. For the 3rd support of the input hypothesis in SLA, the input it ego is examined. Krashen believes that a lot like interactions in FLA with caretakers, 2nd linguistic communication scholars experience plastered interactions with their instructors, with native talkers of the mark linguistic communication, and their schoolmates ( 1982, p. 24 ) .Yet another obese evidence Krashen uses for the input hypothesis in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is the soundless period ( p. 26 ) . This soundless period refers to stripped-down speech toil when larning a 2nd linguistic communication. The integrity finally does talk after some cognition in the linguistic communication has been acquired and the single feels snug to talk the mark linguistic communication. But non everyone is allowed a soundless period. Krashen ( 1982 ) writes, Adults, and kids in forma l linguistic communication categories, are normally non allowed a soundless period. They are frequently asked to bring forth rightfully early in a 2nd linguistic communication, before they adopt acquired adequate syntactic competency to show their thoughts ( p. 27 ) .Finally, Krashen mentions the impact of a linguistic communication scholar s first linguistic communication on their 2nd linguistic communication. A specific linguistic communication characteristic ( much(prenominal) as sentence order ) whitethorn be different in the scholar s first linguistic communication and their mark linguistic communication. A scholar might non hold a appreciation of their mark linguistic communications characteristics, ensuing in the scholar blending regulations from the first linguistic communication to the 2nd. A scholar whitethorn confront communicating jobs with a talker of their mark linguistic communication because of regulations from the scholar s first linguistic communication that d o non suit into the construction of the mark linguistic communication ( Krashen, 1982, pp. 28-29 ) .Krashen s input hypothesis has non gone without unfavorable judgment ( stonemason, 2002 ) . Criticisms of the input hypothesis involve the conflict between caretaker address and extralinguistic information, and the grade of input and grade of end product that should be used between instructor and pupil in a 2nd linguistic communication scene. Mason ( 2002 ) addresses the struggle between caretaker address and extralinguistic information as a affair of what must be altered for a linguistic communication scholar in order to get linguistic communication. Forming caretaker address requires a mutation in input. Leting for extralinguistic information to facilitateance in linguistic communication acquisition requires a alteration in environment ( pp. 2-3 ) . Mason identifies two major jobs when trusting on a alteration in input. The first concerns sociological factors ( whether consist ence exists across cultures and economic conditions and whether altering the input produces the sort of optimistic payoffs Krashen claims it does ) . In other words, how a caretaker interacts with a kid in one civilization for linguistic communication support whitethorn differ in another civilization. Besides, altering input ( such as a linguistic communication scholar and native talker interaction ) could be harmful ( cementing a regulation in the scholar s head because of the alteration the native talker makes to pass on with the linguistic communication scholar ( Mason, 2002, p. 3 ) . The 2nd concerns extralinguistic information. Mason writes, The 2nd reading, modifying the context, may take to the scholar acquiring such rich extralinguistic hints that she does non hold to chafe oneself to get the hang the linguistic communication. The learner gets by-by behaving as if they have understood the linguistic communication, whereas in fact they have read the environment ( 200 2, pp. 3-4 ) .For good example, an instructor inquiring inquiries to a big pigeonholing of scholars with multimedia ( picture, images, music ) , may have end product from many scholars. just about of these scholars, nevertheless, may ride their responses on other scholars in the base. Particularly with a big convocation, the instructor may be unable to place which pupils responded to the inquiry in full, which did non.Another struggle in Krashen s input hypothesis that Mason discusses relates to input and end product. Mason ( 2002 ) argues that Krashen places a greater accent on input and what sort of input should happen than he does on what sort of end product would happen. Too much accent on input can be counterproductive for the instructor, because the instructor can non cognize a pupil s linguistic communication skill without first leting the pupil to talk. Mason anyways argues the instructor should supply some rectification to the scholar s address. Krashen ( 1982 ) st ates that excessively much rectification can impede chargetual end product, but Mason ( 2002 ) believes that without rectification a scholar may do certain errors continuously. He writes, It is merely through the pupil s production that we can look into whether she has to the full understood the input or non, and that without this confirmation, there are a figure of mistakes, remainingly avoidance mistakes, that are never cleared up ( Mason, 2002, p. 7 ) .For its application in the schoolroom, Krashen s input hypothesis provides some penetration into the teacher-student relationship. More frequently than non, each pupil larning a 2nd linguistic communication will hold a different degree of acquisition than another pupil in the schoolroom. few pupils might hold an easier clip reading and composing than speech production, tour other pupils might hold an easier clip speech production and struggle with reading and authorship. Besides, every pupil will larn otherwise. Some pupils may usefulness from a conversation-based course of study, maculation other pupils may profit from a course of study based on rote memorisation.Krashen s input hypothesis attempts to bid to how teachers can pass on with pupils while utilizing the environment around them to direct their direction. For illustration, a instructor could utilize sundry(a) multimedia to implement the input to pupils. Using multimedia is one modal value to hunt with assorted persons larning adroitness. Multimedia utilisation, feature with teacher-talk, can let pupils addition to the class stuff while maintaining the pupil s involvement. paragonly, nevertheless, modified input in the signifier of teacher-talk would work trounce in a superficial group puting. The larger the group the instructor must turn to, the more likely a wider fluctuation in pupil acquisition. even out indoors a infinitesimal group some fluctuation will happen, which is ineluctable. Some alteration of teacher-talk would include velocity, enunciation pick, and content. These three points could be controlled for pupil input, while culture direct grammatical signifiers is avoided. As pupils become more comfy with this attack, the instructor can increase velocity while besides including a wider vocabulary after the vocabulary has been reinforced through multimedia increase toing a lesson.Addressing the pick of content can do the greater trouble for a instructor. Most linguistic communication text editions follow a patterned advance of breeding salutations, waies, shopping, assignments, conditions and other daily subjects. If the pupil lives in the participation where they will talk the mark linguistic communication, the subjects above could turn out practical because the scholar must utilize these subjects in close to societal state of affairss. For those pupils who learn their 2nd linguistic communication outside the community of their mark linguistic communication, these daily subjects may non use to Krashen s reference of the here and now rule. Teachers may so kick upstairs pupils to steer survey groups and conversation pattern times where they can talk the mark linguistic communication as if they were in the mark linguistic communication state. If this is the instance, the instructor should sometimes go to to supply some input to pupils so the subjects they discuss have practical, day-to-day application. possibly the greatest trouble for the instructor would affect supplying regular lessons that help steer pupils without overtly learning signifier. Conversation-based direction frequently takes on this manner if the school does non desire a native talker to utilize a text edition. But how does the instructor cognize how to direct pupils without some course of study, even if that course of study is an unreal patterned advance through phases of linguistic communication acquisition? A danger in taking an unreal course of study would be maintaining track, as an teacher, of the trouble of stuff presented to the pupils. Just how much recap is suited? Should the teacher vary reappraisal stuff to include modification to rush and enunciation usage?For practicality in the schoolroom, it seems the input hypothesis flora best for little groups or with an person. Working with an person or little group allows the teacher to look into the pupil s advancement so teacher talk can alter to suit a pupil s patterned advance through ( one + 1 ) phases. In add-on, Krashen s suggestion of the here and now rule can work non merely for the acquirer in the mark linguistic communication community, but besides through survey groups that include guided input from the teacher. As Krashen ( 1982 ) emphasiss, guided input accompanied by contextual elements from the environment ( such as usage in the mark linguistic communication community or multimedia in the schoolroom ) can steer acquirers through ( one + 1 ) phases. though Krashen s input hypothesis does non delimi tate what instructors must show their pupils at specific phases, the hypothesis can assist steer an teacher in planing a 2nd linguistic communication class that guides pupils through the procedure of linguistic communication acquisition.( 2200 WORDS )MentionsKrashen, S. ( 1980 ) . The suppositional and practical relevancy of simple codifications in 2ndlinguistic communication acquisition . In Scarcella, R. & A Krashen, S. ( explosive detection systems. ) A seek in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, Rowley, Mass. Newbury House, 7-18Krashen, S. ( 1982 ) . Second linguistic communication acquisition theory. InA Principles and pattern in 2ndlinguistic communication acquisition and acquisitionA ( pp. 9-32 ) . New York Prentice Hall International.Krashen, S. ( 1985 ) .A The Input Hypothesis issues and implications.A Longman, New YorkMason, T. ( 2002 ) . reappraisal of Krashen V The Input Hypothesis. Retrieved May 10,2010, from hypertext transfer protocol //www.timothyjpmason. com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLectures/L9_Input.htmSchuh, R. ( DK ) . The human linguistic communication series 2 Geting the human linguistic communication Playingthe linguistic communication game . InA Introduction to linguistic communication talk notes 5BA ( pp. 1-8 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // B Question 1, 2, 4How can knowledge of cognitive or learning readiness of single scholars help a schoolroom instructor be more impressive in category? ( QUESTION 1 ) all(prenominal) linguistic communication scholar enters the schoolroom with his or her ain whole positions, essentials, and grounds for larning a peculiar linguistic communication. This requires the instructor to understand and utilize the many attacks available in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition research to turn to single acquisition address. A instructor s cognition of larning manners can help the pupil in disaster wha t manners work best to develop their linguistic communication accomplishments. This paper will discourse how pedagogues can use the cognition of single acquisition manners in the schoolroom, pulling on theories presented by Robinson ( 2001 ) and larning manner penchants reviewed by Cohen ( 2003 ) .Robinson ( 2001 ) argues that single difference ( or ID ) research and the Aptitude Complex/Ability specialism Hypothesis, and the Fundamental Difference/Fundamental Similarity Hypothesis aid explicate how persons approach larning their mark linguistic communication ( pp. 381-382 ) . Robinson ( 2001 ) makes four chief differentiations from these theories. The first concerns a learning manner difference between an grownup and a kid. He writes, There are child-adult differences in linguistic communication acquisition grownups rely to a great extent on full general problem-solving abilities and prove much greater fluctuation in degrees of attainment ( Robinson, 2001, p. 386 ) . Robinso n claims that differences between an grownup and a kid, every bit good as differences in skill, can assist explicate differences in larning manners.Sing the position of the linguistic communication scholar, Cohen ( 2003 ) discusses assorted manners of linguistic communication scholars. Cohen defines larning manners as general attacks to linguistic communication acquisition that include attacks to category direction ( audile, ocular, and haptic ) , one s manner of thought, and one s personality ( 2003, pp. 279-280 ) . Cohen places larning manner penchants into two groups. The first group includes visual/auditory, abstract-intuitive, planetary, synthesising, unprompted, undetermined and extroverted ( 2003, p. 282 ) . The 2nd group includes hands-on, concrete-sequential, peculiar, analysing, brooding, closing oriented and introverted ( 2003, p. 282 ) . Cohen goes on to province the consequence of what an single learns depends their alone learning manner penchants.So, how can a teacher benefit from the cognition of single acquisition manner penchants? Gardner ( 1983 ) identifies eight intelligences that help place the types of scholars instructors face in the schoolroom. These intelligences expand on other larning manner theories that suggest penchants towards reading, composing or talk to include inter- and intra-personal intelligences ( Gardner, 1983 ) . Gardner suggests that cognition of one s ego and the people around them provides penetration into the person. In footings of acquisition manners, inter- and intra-personal intelligences impact how a pupil interacts with schoolmates and with the instructor. Knowledge of how one s self learns successfully ( for illustration, cognizing what one s acquisition manners are ) can assist steer the scholar in footings of self-study. Knowledge of how those people around them make determinations impact societal kineticss that influence group undertakings, schoolroom treatments and even teacher entranceway ( for extra larning support ) .Gardner s theory of quadruple intelligences besides has strong effects for the instructor. Teachers should seek out ways to unify acquisition manners so that many different scholars have entree to the mark lesson. Not merely should instructors seek to integrate multimedia such as images, picture, and music to turn to changing larning manners in the schoolroom, but besides take into consideration how good the pupils might manage group work versus self-study, category treatment versus talk, game-based direction versus worksheet activities. Whereas some pupils might bask group work, self-study may be more helpful for eventual foot race mark consequences. On the other manus, group work may promote originative work out of some pupils while besides constructing police squad cooperation that helps in the societal development of pupils.With the cognition of larning manners and the multiple intelligences run aground among different scholars, is how civilization influences what acquisition manners are most effectual for a peculiar group of pupils. Students who see rote memorisation as the most effectual manner to cave in trial mark consequences may see game-based or other group activities as a extravagance of clip. Even if those pupils would, in theory, benefit from group work, they might reject group work on rule depending on what signifier acquisition manners tend to take in their civilization.The consideration of differing larning manners challenges instructors to supply pupils with more advanced ways of interaction with class stuffs. In every schoolroom, different pupils will be more receptive to a peculiar acquisition manner than another. An effectual lesson in one schoolroom may correctly in another if the instructor is non sensitive to the changing acquisition manners of his or her ain pupils.( 726 WORDS )MentionsCohen, A. D. ( 2003 ) . The scholar s side of unusual linguistic communication acquisition where do manners, turning aways and undertakings run into? A individual retirement account L International Review of Applied Linguistics in speech Teaching, A 41A ( 4 ) , 279-292. Retrieved from Communication & A Mass Media perfect(a) database.Gardner, H. ( 1983 ) .A Frames of take care The theory of multiple intelligences.A New York BasicBooks.ARobinson, P. ( 2001 ) . Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude composites andlarning conditions in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition.A Second run-in Research, A 17A ( 4 ) , 368-392. Retrieved from Communication & A Mass Media Complete database.To which larning schemes would you seek to give your pupils? Why? ( QUESTION 2 )Through the survey and application of larning schemes, instructors can assist linguistic communication scholars achieve their 2nd linguistic communication ends. Though research workers differ in how they define larning schemes ( see Chamot, 2005 Seliger, 1984 Tarone, 1980b ) , research workers do hold that cognition a nd application of larning schemes help pupils larn their mark linguistic communication and pedagogues know how to show their course of study to the pupil. This paper will discourse which linguistic communication schemes could turn out most helpful in the schoolroom, and why those linguistic communication schemes help accomplish certain schoolroom ends.Ellis ( 1994 ) identifies a scholar s single penchants and situational factors as two primary determiners of using larning schemes ( p. 529 ) . Ellis ( 1994 ) , mentioning Tarone ( 1980b ) , farther examines three fluctuations of larning schemes. The three sorts of schemes are production, communicating, and acquisition ( Ellis, 1994, p. 530 ) . Ellis ( 1994 ) breaks down the 3rd fluctuation, larning schemes, into two parts, The former, as defined by Tarone, are come to with the scholars efforts to get the hang new lingual and sociolinguistic information about the mark linguistic communication. The latter are concerned with the schol ars efforts to go skilled hearers, talkers, and readers, or authors ( p. 530 ) .I teach 600 Korean uplifted school pupils each hebdomad in 50-minute periods. Though these pupils are carve up by gender, they are non divided by degree. These pupils have studied side of meat by rote memorisation for more than 10 old ages in school. Most pupils attend private academies to better their trial tonss. There are three chief types of pupils. The first group wants to analyze English and is unfastened to using many different larning schemes to better their English. The 2nd group is non interest in English, and is receptive to merely a few acquisition schemes. The 3rd group consists of those who merely wish to better English for the national university accounting entry scrutiny. The 3rd group likes larning by rote memorisation, while the 2nd group works best in group scenes. With group one any figure of schemes could assist their acquisition. These three groups classify most pupils. In every category, pupils from each group are present. So how does a instructor mesh acquisition schemes that can assist fluctuation among pupils?Cohen ( 1998 ) discusses schemes on communicating, called usage schemes. As a conversation-based linguistic communication teacher, these communication-based schemes I find most recyclable for my schoolroom. Cohen ( as cited in Oxford, 2003 ) notes four acquisition usage scheme types utilizing antecedently learned cognition, methods of practising end product, preclass readying, and end product use a when the linguistic communication has non yet been acquired ( p. 275 ) . Using a pupils anterior cognition of English proves critical in the schoolroom. As a instructor I should seek to entree my pupil s collected cognition from over 10 old ages of vocabulary memorisation. Showing a picture cartridge pallbearer that suits the lesson and so inquiring pupils to depict what they saw in the picture helps pupils call up antecedently memorized cla ss stuff. This method relates to Cohen s imagination ( 1987 ) . To do this scheme more effectual, I find video cartridge holders that do non include any speech production in English or Korean. The pupils have no pick but to utilize the cognition of English learned in anterior old ages to explicate to me what they watched.Cohen s 2nd usage scheme concerns supplying the scholar with helpful agencies to practising end product. Whereas some instructors prefer to follow a course of study that covers certain grammatical constructs end-to-end the semester, I do non. At the beginning of each category I begin by inquiring pupils basic inquiries about school events, nutrient, or conditions. Some pupils do non talk at this clip, while others are enthusiastic. To measure the end product of the quiet pupils, I ask inquiries that require the pupils who may non cognize how to react in English to utilize organic coordinate gestures. Students use what Cohen ( 1987 ) refers to as directed physic al response. This is frequently an effectual method because, one time pupils have performed the physical gesture, they can re penis mess hall to bring forth end product to explicate their response.Besides sing the usage of larning schemes with the three groups of pupils I have mentioned above, gender and age besides form which larning schemes work best in my schoolroom. Because my categories are divided by gender, the schemes I employ for male pupils differ from schemes I use with pistillate pupils. For illustration, my female pupils tend to profit best from a mix of reading, authorship, and talk of the town activities. The combination of different activities in reading, authorship, and talking tends to bring forth better callback later than merely utilizing talking activities. With the male pupils, nevertheless, utilizing merely talking activities tends to bring forth the best callback. Reading and composing activities with male pupils frequently cut down designer unless some wages system is in topographic point that encourages competition among the male pupils.In my schoolroom, larning schemes that promote pattern of communicating that reinforces bing cognition and uses competition tends to work best for male pupils. instruction schemes that pattern communicating and present new stuff ( particularly when combined with multiple types of activities such as reading and composing ) work best for female pupils. Knowledge of the pupil s terminal end for linguistic communication acquisition combined with seting methods within those groups ( depending on category size of it or gender ) , helps advance effectual schoolroom larning schemes. ( 856 WORDS )MentionsChamot, A. U. ( 2005 ) . lyric larning scheme direction current issues andresearch.A Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, A 25A ( 1 ) , 112-130. Retrieved from EJS database.Cohen, A. D. ( 1987 ) .A Analyzing linguistic communication larning schemes How do we acquire the Information?In A. L. Wenden & A J. Rubin ( Eds. ) , A Learner schemes in linguistic communication learningA ( pp. 31-40 ) . Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall International.Cohen, A. D. ( 1998 ) .A Strategies in larning and utilizing a 2nd linguistic communication. Harlow, EssexLongman.Cohen, A. D. ( 2003 ) . The scholar s side of foreign linguistic communication acquisition where do manners,schemes and undertakings run into? A IRA L International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, A 41A ( 4 ) , 279-292. Retrieved from Communication & A Mass Media Complete database.Ellis, R. ( 1994 ) . Learning schemes. InA The survey of 2nd linguistic communication acquisitionA ( pp. 529-560 ) . Oxford Oxford University Press.Oxford, R. L. ( 2003 ) . Language learning manners and schemes constructs andrelationships.A IRAL International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, A 41A ( 4 ) , 271-278. Retrieved from Communication & A Mass Media Complete database.Seliger, H. ( 1984 ) . touch on univers als in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. In F. Eckman, L.Bell, & A D. Nelson ( Eds. ) .A Universals of Second Language Acquisition.A Rowley, MA Newbury House.Tarone, E. ( 1980b ) . Communication schemes, alien talk and fix in lingua franca.Language Learning, 30, 417-431.Is antecedent the best reply for explicating the success or failure of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition? ( QUESTION 4 )A major challenge for instructors and research workers in the survey of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is the extent that motor plays into the learning procedure. Even more ambitious is happening how to mensurate a scholar s motive. If motive can be measured, can the findings aid instructors motivate pupils in the schoolroom? This paper will research how, and to what extent, motive influences successful or unsuccessful linguistic communication acquisition, researching the recent research in motive and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( Csizer & A Dornyei, 2005 Dornyei & A Otto, 1998 Dornyei, 2001 ) .Csizer & A Dornyei ( 2005 ) explore the relationship between motive and acquisition, and suggest methods of motive in the schoolroom utilizing a method of analysis called structural equation mold. geomorphological equation mold, or SEM, allows research workers to measure multiple points in a individual theory. The writers province, The technique is appropriate for proving expansive theories, that is, comprehensive theoretical accounts do up of complex, interconnected variables, which is precisely the instance with most factors involved in explicating issues in L2 acquisition ( Csizer & A Dornyei, 2005, p. 19 ) . In their research, they identify two issues of learner behavior linguistic communication pick and sum of work invested in linguistic communication survey ( p. 20 ) .Csizer and Dornyei ( 2005 ) claim that make up ones minding one s 2nd linguistic communication reflects the civilization they choose to link themselves to. An p erson s involvement in the specifics of a certain civilization and the involvement in going a member of the mark linguistic communication community, suggests that an person will be motivate to work towards larning the mark linguistic communication. Equally good as involvement, the ability to utilize the linguistic communication for a given intent ( sustain throughing some want or finishing some undertaking ) promotes motive in linguistic communication acquisition ( Gardner, 2001, as cited in Csizer and Dornyei, 2005 ) . The writers wield that involvement and want fulfillment aid make what they term the saint L2 self. This Ideal L2 Self could explicate why an person who admires a peculiar civilization surveies the linguistic communication of a civilization even if the person has neer personally experienced that civilization. Their Ideal L2 Self motivates them so one twenty-four hours their involvement in the mark civilization can be realized. Csizer & A Dornyei s nomenclat ure differs from Gardner ( 2001 ) , who used described, integrativeness, which is similar to involvement mentioned above. Csizer and Dornyei ( 2005 ) write, Integrativeness seen as the Ideal L2 Self can be used to explicate the motivational set-up in diverse acquisition contexts, even if they offer small or no contact with L2 talkers ( p. 30 ) .Does Csizer and Dornyei s Ideal L2 Self aid explicate success and failure in 2nd linguistic communication larning? What is non clear is when a linguistic communication scholar develops the Ideal L2 Self. Does an person, for illustration one that wants to go abroad, make a Ideal L2 Self that they incessantly strive for to aim their end of analyzing abroad? If this is the instance, how does the person remain prompt ( particularly in instances where old ages of survey are required to obtain the end ) ? How can motivation in the footling be explained?Possibly persons who aim for intensive survey to accomplish their Ideal L2 Self have , besides involvement and want fulfillment, a felt make to get a 2nd linguistic communication. Without a felt demand, such as short academic accomplishment, contractual duty, or some other immediate demand that should be addressed, it is possible an Ideal L2 Self may neer be to the full realized. Even if an teacher tries to motivate their pupils, if the pupil does non experience a felt demand that fulfils short-run ends, it may be impossible to actuate pupils in a manner that promotes linguistic communication direction.Dornyei ( 2001 ) addresses this short-run demand ( termed unessential motive ) , the mentioning Self-Determination Theory ( Deci & A Ryan, 1985 Vallerand, 1997 ) , which precedes his theory of the Ideal L2 Self. He writes The theory places the assorted types of ordinances on a continuum between self-determined ( intrinsical ) and controlled ( extrinsic ) signifiers of motive, depending on how internalized they are, that is, how much the ordinance has been trans ferred from outside to inside the person ( Dornyei, 2001, p. 47 ) .The continuum helps explicate for what grounds persons are motivated, whether these grounds involve short-run or long-run extrinsic or intrinsic factors ( Deci & A Ryan, 1985 Vallerand, 1997 ) .Though factors such as aptitude, larning manners and larning schemes can assist measure success and failure in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, understanding motive helps best explain where jobs might originate in both the short and long-run ends of the linguistic communication scholar. Vallerand s ( 1997 ) account of the intrinsic and extrinsic motive continuum in add-on to Csizer and Dornyei s ( 2005 ) construct of the Ideal L2 Self aid step a scholar s motive so that, by cognizing how motive impacts an person s ability to get a 2nd linguistic communication, teachers can break aid scholars through the acquisition procedure.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Poor Academic Performance in Mathematics

The study want to determine the effects of maths Enrichment Approach and Math Trail Activity Approach as interventions to solve the respondents poor academician carrying out in Mathematics IV as a go forth of the following ca social occasions negative attitudes towards mathematics, parents socio-economic status and difficulty of the subject.The study further seek to compare the respondents pre-test as affected by their negative attitudes towards mathematics and post-test as influenced by the interventions.The study adapted the studies of Beaton & Dwyer (2002), Kellaghan&Madaus (2002) on the causes of poor academic military operation in mathematics. The instruments used were the teacher-made pre-test and post-test, Aiken (1994) Mathematics Attitudes, Survey Questionnaire for the Respondents and the Socio-Economic Status Indicators by Liberatos et. al. (1998) & Simich & Dugeon & Weinstein-shr (2005).This agileness research has a statistical treatment of mean, standard deviation and T study for the significant difference.Results revealed that the major cause of the respondents poor academic performance in Mathematics 1V was their negative attitudes towards mathematics. This was confirmed by Broussard & Garrison (2004) on his study.Math enrichment and Math trail approaches were effective interventions to poor academic performance in Mathematics IV.Introduction Mathematics is a changing body of knowledge quite a than a set of rules to belearned and practice. Learning mathematics is an active process where a students gathers, discovers or creates knowledge through with(predicate) a purposeful activity. An integral part of this learning process is the use of concrete models and manipulative to learn concepts. (NCTM, 2008.)Felipe (1990) as cited by Foronda (1995) said that every(prenominal) person must have corresponding growth in enviable degrees and types of mathematical concepts in order to orient himself satisfactorily during the changing times.Perfor mance in mathematics offers a valuable lens for analyzing the quality of the mathematics didactics and learning experiences. Rodd (2003.)Poor academic performance results in the child having a negative attitudes and less motivated.(Karande & Kulkarni 2005.) Identification of the causes of poor academic performance in mathematics and execution of the interventions must beproperlyaddressed so that the respondents can perform up to their full potential prior to their entrance to tertiary level.In Gingoog City comp National High School (GCCNHS) poor academic performance in Mathematics was noticed by the researcher. In National Achievement Test (NAT) conducted recently,Mathematics mean scores were the lowest among other areas. Hence this study sought to find the causes of this problem.

Real Estate Data

68. Refer to the Real Estate data, which reports information on homes sold in the Phoenix, Arizona, area last year. a. Select the variable merchandising price. 1. Find the mean, median, and the standard deviation. 2. Write a brief summary of the dissemination of selling prices. b. Select the variable referring to the area of the home in satisfying feet. 1. Find the mean, median, and the standard deviation. 2. Write a brief summary of the distribution of the area of homes. Price Bedrooms Size Pool Distance Twnship Garage Baths 263. 1 4 2300 1 17 5 1 2 182. 4 2100 0 19 4 0 2 242. 1 3 2300 0 12 3 0 2 213. 6 2 2200 0 16 2 0 2. 5 139. 9 2 2100 0 28 1 0 1. 5 245. 4 2 2100 1 12 1 1 2 327. 2 6 2500 0 15 3 1 2 271. 8 2 2100 0 9 2 1 2. 5 221. 1 3 2300 1 18 1 0 1. 5 266. 6 4 2400 0 13 4 1 2 292. 4 4 2100 0 14 3 1 2 209 2 1700 0 8 4 1 1. 5 270. 8 6 2500 0 7 4 1 2 246. 1 4 2100 0 18 3 1 2 194. 4 2 2300 0 11 3 0 2 281. 3 3 2100 0 16 2 1 2 172. 7 4 2200 1 16 3 0 2 207. 5 5 2300 1 21 4 0 2. 5 19 8. 3 2200 1 10 4 1 2 209. 3 6 1900 1 15 4 1 2 252. 3 4 2600 0 8 4 1 2 192. 9 4 1900 1 14 2 1 2. 5 209. 3 5 2100 0 20 5 0 1. 5 345. 3 8 2600 0 9 4 1 2 326. 3 6 2100 0 11 5 1 3 173. 1 2 2200 1 21 5 1 1. 5 187 2 1900 0 26 4 0 2 257. 2 2 2100 0 9 4 1 2 233 3 2200 0 14 3 1 1. 5 180. 4 2 2000 0 11 5 0 2 234 2 1700 0 19 3 1 2 207. 1 2 2000 0 11 5 1 2 247. 7 5 2400 0 16 2 1 2 166. 2 3 2000 1 16 2 1 2 177. 1 2 1900 0 10 5 1 2 182. 7 4 2000 1 14 4 0 2. 216 4 2300 0 19 2 0 2 312. 1 6 2600 0 7 5 1 2. 5 199. 8 3 2100 0 19 3 1 2 273. 2 5 2200 0 16 2 1 3 206 3 2100 1 9 3 0 1. 5 232. 2 3 1900 1 16 1 1 1. 5 198. 3 4 2100 1 19 1 1 1. 5 205. 1 3 2000 1 20 4 0 2 175. 6 4 2300 1 24 4 1 2 307. 8 3 2400 1 21 2 1 3 269. 2 5 2200 0 8 5 1 3 224. 8 3 2200 0 17 1 1 2. 5 171. 6 3 2000 1 16 4 0 2 216. 8 3 2200 0 15 1 1 2 192. 6 6 2200 1 14 1 0 2 236. 4 5 2200 0 20 3 1 2 172. 4 3 2200 0 23 3 0 2 251. 3 1900 0 12 2 1 2 246 6 2300 0 7 3 1 3 147. 4 6 1700 1 12 1 0 2 176 4 2200 0 15 1 1 2 228. 4 3 2300 0 17 5 1 1. 5 166. 5 3 1600 1 19 3 0 2. 5 189. 4 4 2200 0 24 1 1 2 312. 1 7 2400 0 13 3 1 3 289. 8 6 2000 0 21 3 1 3 269. 9 5 2200 1 11 4 1 2. 5 154. 3 2 2000 0 13 2 0 2 222. 1 2 2100 0 9 5 1 2 209. 7 5 2200 1 13 2 1 2 190. 9 3 2200 1 18 3 1 2 254. 3 4 2500 1 15 3 1 2 207. 5 3 2100 1 10 2 0 2 209. 7 4 2200 1 19 2 1 2 294 2 2100 0 13 2 1 2. 176. 3 2 2000 1 17 3 0 2 294. 3 7 2400 0 8 4 1 2 224 3 1900 1 6 1 1 2 125 2 1900 0 18 4 0 1. 5 236. 8 4 2600 1 17 5 1 2 164. 1 4 2300 0 19 4 0 2 217. 8 3 2500 0 12 3 0 2 192. 2 2 2400 0 16 2 0 2. 5 125. 9 2 2400 0 28 1 0 1. 5 220. 9 2 2300 1 12 1 1 2 294. 5 6 2700 0 15 3 1 2 244. 6 2 2300 0 9 2 1 2. 5 199 3 2500 1 18 1 0 1. 5 240 4 2600 0 13 4 1 2 263. 2 4 2300 0 14 3 1 2 188. 1 2 1900 0 8 4 1 1. 5 243. 7 6 2700 0 7 4 1 2 21. 5 4 2300 0 18 3 1 2 175 2 2500 0 11 3 0 2 253. 2 3 2300 0 16 2 1 2 155. 4 4 2400 1 16 3 0 2 186. 7 5 2500 1 21 4 0 2. 5 179 3 2400 1 10 4 1 2 188. 3 6 2100 1 15 4 1 2 227. 1 4 2900 0 8 4 1 2 173. 6 4 2100 1 14 2 1 2. 5 188. 3 5 2300 0 20 5 0 1. 5 310. 8 8 2900 0 9 4 1 2 293. 7 6 2400 0 11 5 1 3 179 3 2400 0 8 4 1 2 188. 3 6 2100 1 14 2 1 2. 5 227. 1 4 2900 0 20 5 0 1. 5 173. 6 4 2100 0 9 4 1 2 188. 3 5 2300 0 11 5 1 3

Monday, February 25, 2019

The Love in Quartier Enfants Rouges

Christina Bennett ENGL 101-043 Professor Rezendes November 7, 2012 The Love in Quartier Enfants Rouges As many people may kip down, live is a actually entangled thing to control. The blast, Paris, Je TAime tries to show the audience many different perspectives of love in a series of short films. One of the short films in this collection is called Quartier des Enfants Rouges. In this short film, love is shewed in a very different type of way because neither actor says they atomic number 18 in love with unity a nonher, they unspoiled express it with away the former(a) one knowing.The clip Quartier des Enfants Rouges, directed by Olivier Assayas, presents a story absorb where love seems to not be the main focus in the clip, unless drugs are. Actor Lionel Dray who plays mickle, portrays a character as a drug dealer in Paris who goes to a house political party to look for one of his regular customers, Liz (Joana Preiss). Joana Preiss takes the role of a character who is in the town of Paris for an acting role in a movie. When muckle stops by the house to give her the drugs, they go to an ATM because she had no cash. As she was at the ATM, Ken was behind her and trying to touch her, display the viewing audience that he cares about her.After she got the cash, they went to the bar for a couple beers and she gave him her number, and told him he could stop by the casting set where she was filming the movie. As they were leave the bar, he handed her the drugs and she gave him the money. When she was at her thrusting later that night delay to film for the movie, she called Ken and told him to come to her trailer and bring her drugs for her friend, when they were heartyly for her. When her trailer door knocked, it was not Ken it was one of his friends, Jeff (Nicholas Maury) and Ken had sent him out to give her the drugs.Liz seemed really upset because she wanted Ken to come and not Jeff. After reviewing this film, it is light-colored to realize that L iz and Ken have a very strange relationship. In the beginning of the clip, they start off as besides knowing each other, and only knowing each other because of drugs, to move in love and not telling one another. Olivier Assayas is trying to specify the audience by showing that discourse is a huge factor in when it comes to love. Without communication, a relationship goes nowhere, no matter how much love is involved.The actors present this well, because both Liz and Ken had feelings for each other, yet they both did not know so they were both left confused, and got nothing more out of the relationship. If Ken or Liz just could have said something, their relationship would go steady further, and it is perpetually good to know if someone has feelings or not. That is why communication is key in having a supporting and loving relationship. As a viewer of this film, the expectations someone may have are manipulated very quickly. Assayas makes his viewers think that the whole short film is about drugs and drug dealing, when the real story behind the drugs is love.This is a very good way to foreshorten an audience hooked into watching the film, because it draws attention to the audience, and makes them think what the real mind behind this film is. As I was watching the film, I got worn it very quickly because of the whole drug theme, since it was different from all the other films in this movie. When I watched it the first time, I did not fully understand what the short film was about, because the theme of love was so subtle, I could simply recognize why it was even out apart of this movie.Since the ending left me with confusion, it just made me want to watch it again even more. Assayas does a wonderful job in getting his viewers attention because the bandage and theme were different, and was unlike all the other love films that were easy to understand. This in my opinion, was overall the most well-thought out film, and had the best theme of love that was depicted. The film Paris Je TAime, shows the audience what love is all about. Quartier des Enfants Rouges shows that drugs are not the most important thing in keeping a relationship going, but communication is.Communication is a skill that everyone needs and it makes relationships grow, and even make them stronger. Without communication, it will ultimately leave someone confused and hopeless, as shown by Lizs reaction at the end of this short film. It is always safe to keep in mind that love is not easy to find, but when it does happen, express it. Works Cited Assayas, Olivier, dir. Quartier des Enfants Rouges Paris Je TAime, 2006. Perf. Maggie Gyllenhaal, Lionel Dray, Joana Preiss, Laetitia Spigarelli, Nicholas Maury. inaugural Look, 2007. DVD.

Good and Evil in Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm Essay

dangerous and diabolical themes, in some form, exist in practically both piece of literature ever written. It is show in literature as old as the Bible to newer stories much(prenominal) as The Hunger Games. It is no surprise to find this same theme in headmaster of the go by William Golding and fleshly enkindle by George Orwell. Golding and Orwell explore steady-going and evil to show what effect holiness, or the lack thereof, has on society. Both Golding and Orwell intend through their own past experiences that evil corrupts people. To portray this, Orwell and Golding use quasi(prenominal) ideas with their slips and plat to show how fragile the idea of acculturation is for us all.In Lord of the Flies and fauna develop, the theme of evil is obvious passim the development of the characters. In Lord of the Flies, the primary character, yap, is truly evil. jackfruit tree is a brutal boy and he performs many violent acts during his quest for power. The surpass examp le of this is when Jack encourages his tribe to participate in the slaughtering of the angelic Simon (Golding, 140). period the tribe is having a wild, demonic ceremony, Simon crawls out of the woods disorientated after woeful a seizure. Mispickings Simon for the beast, the crazed tribe, including Ralph, brutally rips Simon apart with their bargon reach and teeth. Simon falls off of the cliff and onto the beach below, where his body washes out to sea. In comparison, evil is also prominent in the story Animal Farm.The character Napoleon is the essence of evil in Animal Farm. He is the very manipulative and dictator-like leader of the farm. He performs many unspeakable acts against his fellow animals, such as taking the draw and apples for himself (Orwell, 24). After taking all of the milk and apples, Napoleon gets Squealer, a pig that he uses for propaganda purposes, to explain his reason for taking the milk and apples from them. Squealer states that Napoleon inescapably to ta ke the milk and apples from the animals so that Napoleon has strong brain power. Squealer continues to explain that Napoleon needs to have good brain power because the whole management and makeup of the farm depends on Napoleon (Orwell, 32).Squealer accordinglyce elaborates all the same much and says to the animals that it is for YOUR sake that we drink that milk and eat those applesJones would come back (Orwell, 32). These reasons ar not true, as Napoleon just wants the milk and apples because he finds them tasty and not because he needs them to manage the farm. Meanwhile, the other farm animals argon left to go hungry. In an effective display of pure evil, Orwell and Golding argon able to use Napoleon and Jack as villainous characters in an effort to show what happens to someone with no morals.In contrast, themes of integrity are harder to find, yet evident in the characterization of Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm. In Lord of the Flies, Simon is the epitome of morality . For example, he appears Christ-like as he helps the more vulnerable children of the tribe that the older boys call the Littluns. Simon helps the Littluns by performing tasks that they cannot do, such as picking choice fruit from branches they cannot reach (Golding, 50). In comparison, Animal Farm also has characters that reflect merit. Specifically, Boxer is one character that shows his goodness through his actions. For example, in the Battle of the Cowshed, he sees his fellow animals being injured, so he stops the fighting by kicking a stable-lad in the head. As a result of Boxers actions, the humans scat (Orwell, 36).Although Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm are both predominately near of evil themes, Golding and Orwell use themes of goodness in the characterization to fall out the endorser hope that good just may prevail. Besides the themes of evil found in characterization, there are also the themes of evil in the plot elements of Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm. Towar ds the end of Lord of the Flies, Simon is murdered by the rest of the boys (Golding, 142). Simons death is specifically the point when the evil in the story triumphs over good . Up until the point of Simons death, Ralph and Simon are the only characters who still have good left in them.Since Ralph participates in Simons murder, all of the good that exists in Ralph is gone and the last of civilization dies with Simon. A similar evil is present in Animal Farm when Napoleon tortures and executes traitors of the farm. The animals that are accused of treason are tortured until they shoot to their crime. Once they confess, they are executed (Orwell, 69). Most of the time, these animals are not even guilty. The animals live in a constant fear they do not know when or if they entrust be accused of treason and then executed. By utilize themes of evil, both Golding and Orwell show that a lack of morality in society may eventually result in the impart of civilization.In the same way, theme s of good appear in the plot elements of Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm. Specifically, there is a time when Jack refuses to give Piggy any midpoint. Simon gives Piggy his share because he believes that it is unfair that Jack did not give Piggy any meat. When Simon does not give Jack the satisfaction of eating his meat, Jack then gets extremely angry with Simon and throws meat at Simons feet yelling Eat, Damn you (Golding, 68). Simon still refuses to eat the meat. By his actions, Simon shows that even though they were living in uncivilized times, they could still stay put kind to each other.Just like Lord of the Flies, Animal Farm also has themes of goodness in its plot elements. In particular, overage major(ip) creates a spirit of kindness and enthusiasm at the farm during his notable language. He uplifts the animals by singing them a song entitled Beasts of England. The song is about animals breaking free from human control and living independently. Old Major continues to show his concern for his fellow animals when he says in his speech that all animals are equal (Orwell, 11). As a result of Orwell and Golding using goodness in the plot elements of Animal Farm and Lord of the Flies, they are able to illustrate their point that one can choose to be kind, no matter their surroundings.Through characterization and plot elements, Golding and Orwell use good and evil in Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm to demo their fearful feelings for society. They believe that if society loses their touch of purity and goodness then society will collapse. In other words, Golding and Orwells message to the lecturer is that it is human nature to sin and perform evil, and if society is not careful, it will eventually lead to the demise of civilization.Works CitedOrwell, George. Animal Farm. new(a) York Harcourt, Brace, 1954. (11, 24, 32, 36, 69). Print.Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York Coward-McCann, 1962. (50, 68, 140, 142). Print.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Sharing Responsibility †Role of local and state bodies: Disaster Management Essay

Disaster management gage be define as the brass instrument and management of visions and responsibilities for dealing with each humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in crackicular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impaction of mishaps. Disaster The term DISASTER has been sequestraten from a French vocalise Desastre (French des means bad and astre means star) meaning bad disgust star. A accident whether natural or human induced, is an event which results in widespread human exhalation. It is accompanied by loss of livelihood and plaza causing devastating impact on socio-economical conditions. India is one of the most open developing countries to sufer from various calamitys like-flood, drought, cyclone, landslide, earthquake, forestfire, volcanic erruptions, roits, terrorist attacks etc. Natural disasters-It is an event that is caused by a natural hazard and leads to human, material, economical and environmental losses. They are beyond the kee p back of human beings. Nature provides us with all the resources, but it can be some clippings cruel also. Some examples of natural disasters are- the 2001 earthquake in Bhuj, Gujarat, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the 2008 earthquake in China, the 2007 cyclone in Myanmar. Eg. Floods, Drought, Earthquake, Volcano, Cyclones, Landslides, Avalanches etc. Human-Induced Disasters- humankind made disasters are caused by human activities such as thermonuclear explosion, chemical & biological weapons, industrial pollution, war, accidents etc.Some serious destructions caused by humans, which affects the human beings and the socio-economic conditions of that area. For example- the 1984 Bhopal shove off Tragedy, assume derailments, serial blasts in Mumbai in 2008 (26/11) etc. Eg, Nuclear, Biological and chemic Disasters. Disaster directionIt is the discipline of dealing with and annuling risks. In general it is the unceasing process by which all individuals, groups and communities man age hazards in an effort to avoid or minimize the impact of the disastersresulting from the hazards. It is almost impossible to fully control the damage caused by the disaster, but it is possible to minimize to some consummation by these ways- (1) By early warn wedded by MET. purposee section through radio, TV. (2) The police control room , fire control officers , the closelipped by RED-cross office and other rescue teams should be informed. (3) Spread knowingness about disasters and tips to handle them. (4) Space technology nobbles a very grave purpose in efficient mitigation of disasters. (5) Major loss of bearing and property can be avoided with carefull stick outning along with and utile warning and evacuation procedure. (6)We should cooperate with the rescue teams. It is our moral and social duty that we should serve well in arranging relief camps for those who have suffered. Role Of Local mint In Managing Disasters-1. Spread awareness about disasters2. Organise m ock camps in their holidays in neighbouring villages to train people to cope up with disasters 3. The basic federal agency of students is spreading AWARENESS of what to do during and after disasters. This would lessen the death toll, panicking, insane and uncontrollable people running about 4. Be a part of emergency rescue team5. A big aspect of disaster management is preparedness6. Students can also provide first aod which would ease authorities in saving lives 7. Deforestation should be checked8. Buildings should not be built on steep slopes and every construction should go over the Architechtural Parameters.INTRODUCTIONIndia has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its laughable geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been recurrent phenomena. At the global level, there has been considerable job over natural disasters. Evenas substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and p roperty due to disasters has not decreased. Over the past couple of years, the organisation of India has brought about a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management. The new approach proceeds from the conviction that development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the development process.This project discusses the purposes that government andvarious agencies that variation an important role in managing disasters. We too as citizens of India can romp a major(ip) role. We can also be a extend and also a skilled personnel and save lives of our near and estimable country men/women in any disaster scenario. At the time of disaster various agencies both government and non government organizations playa crucial role in preparing the society. topographic point Guards, Civil Defense, Volunteers of national Service Scheme, NehruYuva Kendra Sangathan too play a major role at the time of crisis. This chapter tries to understand the functions and role of these agencies in disaster management, who make the society a better backside to lives.http// (impo)http// (impo)http// kingdom.aspx (impo)http// (civil defence in disaster management)http// ( Nagaland root word Gaurds and Civil Defence Organisation)http// ( function of Home Guard )http// ( UN Disaster Management Team )http// (NCC Impo)INDIAN CIVIL DEFENCEHome Guard ( Delhi Home guard and civil defence) interior(a ) Service SchemeUN DISASTER caution TEAM LOGOINDIAN ARMED FORCESThe Armed Forces have six-spot main tasksTo assert the territorial integrity of India.To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores. To follow the Cold hold up doctrine, meaning that the Indian Armed Forces are able to quickly mobilize and take criminal offence actions without crossing the enemys nuclear-use threshold. However, officially, India denies having a cold start schema quoting the Indian Army chief There is nothing called Cold Start. As part of our overall strategy we have a emergence of contingencies and options, depending on what the aggressor does.In the recent years, we have been improving our systems with compliments to mobilization, but our basic army posture is defensive. To support the civil alliance in case of disasters (e.g. flooding). To move into in United Nations peacekeeping trading operations in conso nance with Indias commitment to the United Nations Charter. The code of give of the Indian military is detailed in a semi-official book called springer and Etiquette in the Services, written by retired Major popular Ravi Arora, which enlarge how Indian personnel are expected to conduct themselves generally. Arora is an executive editor in chief of the Indian Military Review. http// (Details on the above info. And pictures of president of majority rule of India, headquarter of ministry of defense etc.)NCC IndiaIt is the Indian military cadet corps with its Headquarters at New Delhi. It is open to school and college students on voluntary basis. topic plebe Corps is a Tri-Services Organization, comprising the Army, Navy and Air Force, engaged in grooming the youth of the country into disciplined and patriotic citizens. The National Cadet Corps in India is a voluntary organization which recruits cadets from high schools, colleges and Universities all over India. The Cadets are given basic military training in small arms and parades. The officers and cadets have no liability for active military serve up once they complete theircourse but are given preference over normal candidates during selections based on the achievements in the corps. NCC memorial The NCC in India was formed with the National Cadet Corps Act of 1948. It was raised(a) on 15 July 1948 The National Cadet Corps can be considered as a successor of the University Officers Training Corps (UOTC) which was established by the British in 1942. During World War II, the UOTC never came up to the expectations set out by the British. This led to the idea that some better schemes should be formed, which could train more young men in a better way, even during peace times. A committee headed by Pandit H.N. Kunzru recommended a cadet organization to be established in schools and colleges at a national level. The National Cadet Corps Act was accepted by t he Governor General and on 15 July 1948 the National Cadet Corps came into existence. MOTTO OF NCC genius and Discipline (Ekta aur Anushasan)AIMS OF NCC 1. To develop qualities of character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless profit among the youth to make them useful citizen.2. To create a human resource of organized trained and motivated youth to provide leadership in all walks of life including the Armed Forces and be always operational for the service of the nation.HOW ARE DISASTERS MANAGED AT NATIONAL LEVEL?http// (institutional mechanisms) HOW ARE DISASTERS MANAGED AT STATE LEVEL1. INTRODUCTIONThe distinguish Disaster Management Action envision (DMAP) has been prepared for its operationalisation by various departments and agencies of the Government ofMaharashtra and other Non-Governmental Agencies expected to participate in disaster management. This plan provides for institutional arrangements, roles and responsibilities of the various agencies, interlinks in disaster management and the scope of their activities. An elaborate inventory of resources has also been formalized.The purpose of this plan is to evolve a system to assess the status of existing resources and facilities available with the various departments and agencies involved in disaster management in the state assess their adequacies in dealing with a disaster identify the requirements for institutional strengthening, technological support, upgradation of information systems and data management for improving the quality of administrative response to disasters at the state level make the state DMAP an effective response mechanism as well as a form _or_ system of government and planning tool. The state DMAP addresses the states response to demands from the district brass instrument and in extraordinary emergency situations at multi-district levels. It is associa ted with disasters like road accidents, major fires, earthquakes, floods, cyclones, epidemics and off-site industrial accidents. The present plan is a multi-disaster response plan for the disasters which outlines the institutional framework required for managing such situations. The state DMAP specifically focuses on the role of various governmental departments and agencies like the Emergency Operations snapper in case of any of the above mentioned disasters. This plan concentrates primarily on the response strategy.

Hassan in The Kite Runner Essay

A perfect relay link could be described as someone who is honest and trustworthy, they make you laugh, someone you enjoy spending clipping with, and most of all they know how to have a legal time and pick you up when youre down. The novel The kite Runner write by Khaled Hosseini depicts the setting of a great friendship in the outperform and most thoughtful way plainly the definition does not face to match with what others seem to think. Hassan and emir show utmost veritablety and unimportance towards each other but with one regular(a)t the course of twain of their lives change and both sides of their friendship do not remain equal.In their childhood days in Kabul Hassan acts as a brave, humble, kind and hardworking, young boy who only wishes for ameer to succeed and be happy, more or less to the extent of being too good to be true. Hassan displays these qualities and attributes by a number of important and notable make upts. First, Hassan protects ameer in whatso ever space even if it puts him in danger. Second, after(prenominal) retrieving the kite from Assef, Hassan doesnt even boot what took place to emeer present his utmost loyalty. Third, Even after he is betrayed by Amir, Hassan continues to lie for the person he considers his best friend.Through these sets of events it pass on be evident how Hassan shows his attributes and how he, as a character in the novel, cogency be considered as too good to be true Hassan and Amir were raised to suckher, grew up with each other and lived together for a abundant chunk of their lives. Although Amir is the only one that goes to tired of(p)rehseh, school, Hassan does a very good job of trying to keep up with Amir. In Afghanistan school smarts founding fathert get you that far in public life, situations arise where a young boy ejectnot merely think his way out of it.This split up of Situation arises between Hassan, Amir and a couple of boys who seemed to be up to no good. Assef, a notoriou s sociopath and violent boy, and his two friends Wali and Kamal gibe Amir for socializing with a Hazara, which, according to Assef, is an inferior race whose members pass away only in Hazarajat. One day, he prepares to attack Amir with unstained steel brass knuckles, but Hassan bravely stands up to him, threatening to scoot out Assefs eye out with his slingshot Amir had bought him. Assef decides to walk of life away promising to be back.The fact that Hassan was only being bullied and not the one being threatened and still decides to stand up to Assef shows his tyrannical crawl in and true loyalty to Amir. Even though this situation is former(a) in the book, its significance is still that of utmost importance for the fact of it sho realiseg how Hassan go out protect Amir in any and all situations even if it puts him in danger. The kite fighting tournament is an event that almost any child in Kabul participates in. For each child that flies a kite, there is one who melts and grabs the kite loosing kites as they fall.Amir and Hassan form a team and they work together every year to try to win the tournament, Amir flies and Hassan runs the kites down. Against all odds they win the competition and Hassan goes to run it down. Soon enough Amir finds Hassan with Assef once again. Too scared to intervene, Amir stands and watches his most loyal friend Hassan get raped. One of the many climaxes of The Kite Runner is this scene because for the rest of Amirs life he lives with it on his conscience, that he did not do anything to help.Amir and Hassan never utter of that moment again but both of them know what had happened that day. Just resembling any other average person Hassan could have gotten very mad at Amir, but the fact that he chooses not to shows how humble, caring and thoughtful of Amir. Not only does Hassan later want to continue their relationship how it was earlier but he in fact looks to take the blame as he asks Amir later on what he had done vi tuperate to upset him. All of Hassans actions are shown in the most loyal and confederate way.As our novel progresses Hassan and Amir become that and further apart from each other, to the point that Amir eventually decides he would no longer like to live in the same household as him. All this time Hassan has been trying to make things wright between them but Amir would refuse to listen. Amirs frustration ultimately leads to him framing Hassan to get him to leave. In a confusing exchange of dialogue Hassan takes the blame and apologizes, Baba accepts but Ali insists on their immediate dismissal. Again we see Hassans sheer love for Amir as he does not want him to get into trouble.pickings all the blame seems to be one of the best ways that Hassan can show his friendship. Doesnt seem like often, but having the courage and gallantry to do it to this extent truly makes Hassan a literally unbelievable character. Although Hassan and Amirs relationship does not match that which others be lieve to be true, it is much more. The reason their friendship isnt the same as others is because they are not friends they are and always will be brothers. Hassan character is a brave, humble, unselfish and hardworking, young boy who only wishes for Amir to succeed and be happy.Hassan displays these qualities and attributes through a number of important and notable events. First, Hassan protects Amir in any situation even if it puts him in danger. Second, after retrieving the kite from Assef, Hassan doesnt even mention what took place to Amir showing his utmost loyalty. Third, Even after he is betrayed by Amir, Hassan continues to lie for the person he considers his best friend His character is without a doubt too good to be true because of the fact that Khaled Hosseini puts him in the wrong position, Hassan is not Amir friend nor will he ever be. They are brothers for life.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

China’s One Child Policy

The insurance insurance was put onto say In 1979 as an aggressive effort to Improve standards of aliment and the economy through universe occupy (CNN). The initial polity that was put into place was much stricter than the insurance most raft atomic number 18 familiar with now. This is because the original plan was meant to be short-term ( unaccompanied a couple of decades), however its success of hindering nearly cd million contains made chinaware leaders think twice roughly terminating the plan altogether and instead revised the constitution Into what it is today (CNN).This corner lapidatevass bequeath be breaking down the unmatchable kid form _or_ system of government by looking Into a variety f different aspects such(prenominal)(prenominal) as the company that allplacesees the insurance policy and what rewards or punishments they hand tabu, the cocker boomers opinion on the policy and the reason the leaders implemented it, and prior attempts to contro l the world. As well as the current cosmos standings, the well-known girlfriend to son dimension problem, how it affected maven families plan, and current feelings by the locals towards the policy. The genius- baby bird policy Is known by those that abide by It as the family planning policy. concord the policy In mainland China Is difficult as on that point are many exceptions and die hards. The family planning policy states that married urban couples are solely get outed maven shaver. However, exceptions include c let outnish families, ethnic minorities, couples who themselves only serve mavin sibling, and foreigners residing in China. According to Maria Trichina, the NIFOC (The National Population and Family Planning explosive charge of China), Is a state agency responsible for overseeing population control, reproductive wellness and family planning cross carriages China.The NIFOC was created to help families make decisions about their child, designate rewards to change little families, and enforce penalties when it is disobeyed. E veryone who falls under the policy in China is personalisedly responsible to work out family planning and use proper contraceptive methods. Those that picnic by the blueprints are offered a snatch of perks such as modified financial assistance, longer maternity and honeymoon breaks, Certificate of Honor for Single-Child Parents, loans, along with other rewards.Those that disobey the strict law can be fined up to half of their annual household income or be subject to confiscation of their household items. The excess children themselves may personally be subject to wellness and education disadvantages. Trichina) All of these penalties and rewards make having a single child very attractive and make most couples non even consider having a second child. The counseling the policy is set up Is very immaterial and lucrative, making nearly 97% of the solid ground keep abreast Its guidelines. Hays) 1979 as t he baby boomers of the sasss and asss were beginning to reproduce. The reason for the sudden worry of the population in China came when leaders realized that China was home to a quarter of the worlds population on but 7 percent of the worlds land (Hester). The population append during the sass through 1979 introduced a large topic of problems in China. With such a rapid development, came the establishments inability to provide for its citizens the way Chinas citizens were used to the way that was previously possible.Also, leadership argued that rapid population growth would retard work of the four sophisticatedization (industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense) by hampering attainment of full profession and by cutting into increases in capital accumulation, living standards, and education (Bonaparte) The rule was implemented in order to return the country AAA high standard of living, education, and economic reform.Because the long term effects of the policy work non been felt and there are still a number of people in China that were innate(p) onwards the policy, it is uncertain if Chinas goals to make a better life for its citizens take a shit been fulfilled. Judging by the number of children innate(p) under the one child policy that plan to follow it with their own families, the policy obviously has its perks. But before this law was enforced, a number of other options were attempted. A number of other options were researched and attempted before the law went into effect, many failed efforts to control the population took place.Although the policy seems harsh, the one child policy was not implemented on a whim. In 1971 the Chinese government introduced a birth-limitation campaign called longer-later- fewer. In this plan men and women would withstand longer periods between the births of their children, wait until they were older to have their first child, and have fewer than the average children. Fewer than average was three ch ildren if you were a rural dwelling couple and 2 for those in the Urbana (Bonaparte).Due to the lack of success f that program, the decision was made to limit couples to having Just cardinal children in the stratum 1977, followed by Just one child in 1979. China pass on maintain its one-child policy for at least another(prenominal) decade as nearly 200 million Chinese will enter child- baby carriage age over the next 10 years. Minister Ghana advisement told the China Daily newspaper, abandoning the policy during this period would cause serious problems and carry extra pressure on social and economic development. However, the exact detail of the continued policy will be less strict and will include exceptions and options such as being able to apply for certificates to allow the birth of a second child. Another revision of the policy has not yet been started, however the grip is a lot less closemouthed and more than families are able to have more than one child while still avocation the rules, and falling under the exceptions. The successes of the policy can be seen in the current population standings versus where the country was headed prior to the policy beginning.It is hard to reflect what the exact population goals were and what the current population is as a number of sources contradict all(prenominal) other yet each claim to be en discontinued in China in the late sass and since population counts have been restarted in 1975 they have neer been referred to as reliable. This shows that the population goal was not set in stone and that the actual population in China is unknown. According to sources, the estimated population in China has been continually maturement since 1953 when the death cast began falling significantly and the birthrate increased, creating a 2. 8 percent population growth rate.The increase was initially embraced by the public and the leaders of China saw the population growth as part of the countries strength. A growing pop ulation following hundreds of years of war, epidemics, rebellions and the collapse of imperial authority was a welcomed change. (Kane) However, when the reality of the change magnitude population hit home and the effects of the growing population started effecting communities, the policy began being designed. When it was introduced, it is said the leaders had a goal in object in 1979 they hoped the population of China, in the year 2000, would be at or so 1. Billion. The 2000 census showed the population at 1. 27 billion, however many people argue that this is an underestimate because the census neuters in China is the same perpetration that is meant to be in charge of population control. Whether the population actually reduced or not is hard to say, but what has been proven is that per woman, the fertility rate has dropped from 2. 9 children, down to 1. 7. (Hester) Chinas population, which now stands at about 1. 3 billion, is growing at the rate of 0. 6 percent and is anticipat e to peak some 1. 6 billion by 2050, concord to the U. S. State Department. CNN) Following the peak, it is expected to drop off drastically resulting in the population numbers coveted by leaders in China. As a whole, the policy has helped prevent approximately 250 million births since 1979. The greatest difference in population has come from those in urban areas, as those in rural settings are less keen on the rule. Although the rule only officially applies to those living in urban areas, couples in rural landscapes are also advised and sometimes pressured to follow the one child policy as well. Even before the rule went into effect, nearly 90% of urban couples had already descendd to have only one child.This was in part due to the small living spaces and the hours Chinese workers are expected to put into a Job. Add to that the wear down tasks of caring for a family and the majority of couples cant fathom having more than one child. rude families, on the other hand, need large r families to financially support them as they grow older as they tend to have limited nest egg and no pensions (Kane). Discouragements of larger families include financial levies on each supernumerary child and sanctions which ranged from social pressure to curtailed compassionateer prospects for those in government Jobs (Kane).Specific measures change across each individual community, but in a riled knit community, the pressure o adhere to the one-child policy is high. Having what they call unapproved pregnancies which are children that are not approved by the family planning authorities, can generate problems to more than Just the defiant family. For example, if a couple was to have an unapproved maternalism in a community and this birth caused the community to exceed the one-year birth quota, then other families who had previously been approved to have a child, would have to wait until the next year and families in China.Not only do families feel pressure in having child ren, they also feel pressure in the gender of the child they have. A well-known effect caused by the one child policy in China, is the preference of having a son over a young lady. Before the policy was implemented, the ratio was about 105 males to all 100 females overall in China, but currently the ratio stands at 114 males to every 100 females. The desire to have a son earlier than a daughter is due to the tradition that in the parents old age, the daughter moves in with the parents of the son to care for them.In the event that a daughter is born instead off son, families abiding by the one child rule, more often peasants, dispose of the infant RL and try once more, this time hoping for a son. This practice is called sex selective infanticide. Another well-known reason to dispose of the daughter is so that when the child grows up and tries to start a family, the families last crap tied with the daughter wont have a chance to be tarnished by a daughter breaking the one child p olicy. Beliefs in China are that an infant does not own life until they are sextuplet months old therefore getting rid of the infant daughter is not seen as a crime.The method used, most commonly by the father, is to place the infant in a bucket of cold water that Chinese refer to as baby water. In a education make in 1980, for every 1000 infants being born across China, 53 were being disposed of, but in the rural areas of the country, the ratio was much higher (Kane). In some communities of China, one out of every three daughters born are disposed of. The boy to girl ratio proves to be troubling for China in the future, but as of now, no measures are being taken to prevent this common practice. Families struggle to decide whether to keep the daughter or try again for another, in hopes that it is a boy.Many people were frustrated when the rule was set in place in 1979. Going from the longer-later- ewer rule that did allow more than one child, Just a certain amount of space betwee n each birth (usually 3 years), to having Just one child, ruined a lot of couples family plans. oddly those who had already had one child, a girl, and were planning on trying again later for a boy. Most couples had to accept the plan and were plagued with the reality that their one child would be a girl and would likely leave them in their old age. But some couples broke the new rule, and tried for a son.Penalties faced for having another child included losing workforce points and even personal belongings. Some locals surveyed say it was worth it, but others, who had a daughter a second time, are now even more devastated. The only way to gain back those points and reclaim their confiscated items is for the woman to be permanently decided by a licensed doctor. Almost all couples breaking the rule and having a second child are forced to undergo such offices. For traditional families, it can be heartbreaking. However, for a number of more modern families, the policy is becoming unde rstood and even accepted.Some say having only one child ensures better care, including better nutrition, dress, education, and more attention. These modern couples embrace the one child rule, understanding that the best care can be minded(p) to a child when there is only one child to care for (Ghana). Modern couples understand the policy and some even chose to undergo the procedure after their first child to avoid being punished. These are the government or NIFOC. While there are some that agree and abide, there are still some that will fight it until it is taken out of practice.Those that fight it may not be beneficiaries of some of the positive results the policy has produced. Even some of the only daughters are enjoying benefits that, without the policy, would not have existed. Since the policy implementation over 30 years ago, a number of children born under the one child policy are now adults. Feelings towards the policy are across the board, but the statistics are not. A numb er of studies done show that children born under the policy, especially girls, tend to have a better life than those with multiple siblings.One obvious reason for that is the family with one child is not scolded by the government with fees, income confiscation and other humiliations. But in the studies there are other reasons that children are better off as an only child. For example, many one child families are made of two parents and one gather. With no male heir competing for resources, parents have spent more on their daughters education and well-being, a groundbreaking shift after centuries of inequality says Jeffery Hays, an expert on the one child policy.In 1978, women made up only 24. 2 percent of the student population at Chinese colleges and universities. By 2009, nearly half of Chinas full-time undergraduates were women and 47 percent of graduate students were female, according to the National Bureau of Statistics. (Hays) This is the first time in Chinas history that di rect enrollment between males and females are near equal. So, although the policy might be hard to understand and frowned upon by many, the statistics cant be denied, having Just one child in China ensures that child a better life.In studying and reading material of the family planning policy in China I believe that it is a very difficult rule to dissect. There are obvious reasons that the policy was set into place, and had it not been implemented, the population of China would have far outgrown the resources that country has to offer. I think the biggest issue that comes into play is the tradition of sons moving in with their parents to care for them. This is the largest reason that the surviving birth rate of females is so low and males is so high.It is hard to say to abandon the tradition and have hoary care in a home or find another way, however in China, the act of a tradition so crocked between families it makes that idea unrealistic. I do think that something needs to be d one that alters the tradition into something that welcomes both males and females into the world before China is overflow by males and the men to women ratio is even worse than it currently is. boilersuit I think the policy had to happen and it would not be august if other entries took this idea into consideration.