Monday, September 30, 2019

Economic Malaysia Essay

The economy of Malaysia has expanded a lot in 2004, as in the following years, with a growth of 7.1 percent. At that time, GNI was at $ 117.1 billion and the GNI per capita at $ 4650. Malaysia’s economy continues to grow. In terms of purchasing power parity, the country was the twenty-ninth largest economy on the globe, having gross domestic product at $357.9 billion in 2007. Due to its continuous development in the industrial sector, Malaysia has one of the biggest living standards in Southeast Asia. RELATED ARTICLES THE 2008 ECONOMIC RECESSION AND ASIA E-Commerce Adoption By Malaysian Organizations Malaysian Culture The Implications Of Multiculturalism On Competition Law In Malaysia Malaysia has rich natural resources: palm oil, timber, tin, crude petroleum and rubber. Agriculture accounts for 12 per cent of the country’s GDP. 16 per cent of the working population is employed in the domain of agriculture. The most important crops are palm oil, cocoa and rubber, but also fruits and vegetables: coconuts, pineapples, rambutan, bananas and durian. The country cannot satisfy the population’s everyday need for rice, so Malaysia is forced to import it from the neighboring countries such as Vietnam or Thailand. Malaysia is the biggest producer of palm oil in the world; it produced 10 million metric tons of palm oil in 1999, most of which was exported. Malaysia is also a big exporter of rubber and wood: tropical logs, sawed tropical timber, hardwood. The manufacturing sector provides: furniture, office machines, electrical machines and appliances, clothing, footwear. International trade has a big role in the country’s economy, as it is one of the three countries controlling the Strait of Malacca. 48% of the country’s GDP is covered by the industrial sector: banking, telecommunications, tobacco, transportation, utilities. Bank Negara Malaysia regulates the financial sector in Malaysia. It licenses limits for foreign participation. In 2001, the central bank launched a Financial Sector Master Plan to recuperate the financial sector after the financial crisis in Asia, with an emphasis on Islamic Banks. Poverty is still a big issue to be solved. Urban poverty seems to have been neglected in the favor of rural poverty, because it is considered that only 2 percent of the urban population lives in poverty. Malaysia’s economy managed to sustain a fast economic development in the last thirty years. It has reduced poverty and provided a better environment for the ethnic groups in the country. The World Bank confirms the fact that growth was registered in all Malaysian sectors. Growth was continuous for 5 years mostly due to domestic consumption. The private investments led to a private sector, increasing the country’s economy. http://www.articlesbase.com/economics-articles/malaysian-economy-821769.html

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Vehicular webs are going as a milepost of the coming coevals the Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITSs ) , affecting a safer and more efficient transit by giving whole information on clip to drivers and several governments. By and large the moving vehicles are able to pass on with another vehicle through the vehicle to vehicle communicating or to the route side unit via vehicle to route side communicating. Particularly the Location of vehicle must be hint on its individuality on web [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Besides the traveling vehicle has its ain individuality depending on the other vehicle. The vehicles are ever anon. in the web. A big field of petition in web relies on association and information collection amongst take parting vehicles. Exclusive of individualities of participants, such applications are susceptible to the Sybil assault where a malevolent vehicle mask as legion individualities [ 3 ] , overwhelmingly act uponing the consequence. The effect of Sybil onslaught happening in vehicular web can be important. For case, in protection related contraption such as danger warning, smash turning away, and fliting aid, partial consequences caused by a Sybil onslaught can demo the manner to strict auto bad luck. Therefore, it is of great significance to feel Sybil onslaughts from the highly get downing of their happening. Detecting aggressor node in urban vehicular webs, however, is really demanding. Primary, vehicles are cryptic. There are no handcuffs of trust associating claimed individualities to reliable vehicles. Second, location privateness of vehicles is of great apprehensiveness. Locality information of vehicle can be really private. For case, it can be contingent that the rider of a vehicle may be under the conditions from cognizing the vehicle is parking following to a infirmary. It is inhibitive to do obligatory a conversation association among claimed individuality to genuine vehicles by formalizing the physical endurance of a vehicle at a proving place and clip. Third, conversations among vehicles are really bantam. Due to elevated mobility of vehicles, a running vehicle can hold merely more than a few seconds [ 4 ] to pass on with another periodically encountered vehicle. It is hard to establish certain dependability among pass oning vehicles in such a bantam clip. This makes it effortless for a malevolent vehicle to bring forth an aggressive individuality but really hard for others to legalise. Additionally, small treatment amongst vehicles calls for online Sybil assault exposure. The find proposal fails if a Sybil onslaught is identified after the onslaught has accomplished. To extinguish the bullying of Sybil onslaughts, it is undemanding to obviously adhere a dissimilar authorised individuality [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 8 ] to every vehicle so that all lending vehicle can match to itself merely one time during all communications. Using unambiguous individualities of vehicles has the likely to wholly avoid Sybil onslaughts but v iolates the enigma concern in urban vehicular webs. 1.1 Introduction of vehicular Network: The aim of ambient intelligence is to make an intelligent day-to-day infinite, which is instantly useable and integrated into our places, our offices, our roads, our autos, and everyplace. This new construct must be unseeable ; it must intermix in with our normal environment and must be present when we need it. One of the applications of this construct consists of supplying our autos and roads with capablenesss to do the route more secure ( information about the traffic, accidents, dangers, possible roundabout way, conditions, etc. ) and to do our clip on the route more gratifying ( Internet entree, web games, assisting two people follow each other on the route, chat, etc. ) . These applications are typical illustrations of what we call an Intelligent Transportation System ( ITS ) whose end is to better security, efficiency and enjoyment in route conveyance through the usage of new engineerings for information and communicating ( NTIC ) . Traditional traffic direction systems are bas ed on centralised substructures where cameras and detectors implemented along the route cod information on denseness and traffic province and transmit this information to a cardinal unit to treat it and do appropriate determinations. This type of system is really dearly-won in footings of deployment and is characterized by a long reaction clip for processing and information transportation in a context where information transmittal hold is critical and is highly of import in this type of system. In add-on, these devices placed on roads require periodic and expensive care. Consequently, for big scale deployment of this type of system, of import investing is required in the communicating and detector substructure. However, with the rapid development of wireless communicating engineerings, location and detectors, a new decentralized ( or semi-centralized ) architecture based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications ( V2V ) has created a really existent involvement these last few old ages fo r auto makers, R & A ; D community and telecom operators. This type of architecture relies on a distributed and independent system and is made up of the vehicles themselves without the support of a fixed substructure for informations routing. In this instance, we are speaking about a vehicular ad hoc web ( VANET ) , which is no more than a specific application of traditional nomadic ad hoc webs ( MANET ) . An illustration of an urban VANET web is illustrated in Following Figure. Fig 1.1. Example of VANET web An application sphere where those visions can go world in the close hereafter is wireless communicating in vehicular traffic webs in order to better traffic safety and to increase traffic efficiency, vehicle-to-X communicating ( V2X ) webs. The notations car-to-X communicating ( C 2X ) and vehicular ad- hoc webs ( VANE Ts ) are synonymously used. The â€Å"X† emphasizes that either entirely vehicles communicate ( vehicle-to-vehicle communicating ( V2V ) ) , or so do vehicles and substructure points ( vehicle-to-infrastructure communicating ( V2I ) ) . For both types of communicating similar engineerings may be used, and webs uniting both are expected. In this thesis we concentrate on direct V2V communicating. It is envisioned that by interchanging information straight between vehicles every vehicle should be able to observe vehicles in the surrounding and may cipher the current traffic state of affairs from collected information. Such co-operative autos warn their drivers if n ecessary, e.g. in instance of at hand dangers like possible hits with other vehicles or looking obstructions on the route, e.g. route works. The communicating hence has to carry through highest quality demands as precise information has to be transmitted with high dependability and short hold under inauspicious and extremely dynamic environmental conditions. A cardinal edifice block of V2V communicating is the periodic transmittal of position information by every single vehicle. These messages that are frequently called beacon messages contain information like current place, velocity, acceleration and way of driving. The messages serve as the information footing for the common consciousness of the vehicles. For vehicles in the close surrounding of a several sender, the response of beacon messages is of peculiar importance in order to obtain accurate consciousness of the stopping point environing. Beacon messages have specific and unusual communicating belongingss that have to be considered. First, beacon messages are transmitted by every equipt vehicle. Second, beacon messages that contain up-to-date information are transmitted in a periodic man- ner, i.e. several times per second. Third, the messages are transmitted in a broad- dramatis personae mode and do non hold one specific receiver. In effect, an effectual strategy to admit a succ essful message response is non easy applicable. Therefore, specific methods are necessary to look into this type of communicating that we call local broadcasts communicating. With regard to the mentioned belongingss it has to be identified how timely and dependable periodic beacon messages can be distributed in the local surrounding of each vehicle. A cardinal and precise cognition of the systems in usage, their behaviour and their public presentation is necessary to measure V2V communicating and to plan systems that work dependable under mundane conditions. Therefore, the end of this thesis is a comprehensive and precise public presentation rating of periodic local broadcast communicating in V2V communicating webs. Of peculiar involvement is the scalability of immense and heavy webs. It turns out that the concealed terminus job is peculiarly relevant as it causes interventions during the response of messages. We discuss the analysis of effects of mu- tual intervention on the public presentation of V2V webs and accordingly on their possible. Therefore, such webs are analyzed with a focal point on the possibilities and restrictions that the communicating m echanisms and the physical features provide for the particular type of informations traffic that is exchanged. Several undertakings worldwide have investigated the betterment of transit systems with regard to the positive consequence on traffic safety and traffic efficiency. In recent old ages, the specific function of V2X communicating came into focal point and broadened the research sphere to the interaction of vehicles and substructure. Be- bow, these spheres were frequently treated individually: while from infrastructure side adaptable traffic telematics applications were introduced ( e.g. variable message marks for velocity and figure of parking tonss, or adaptative traffic visible radiations for traffic flow optimisation ) , on the vehicle side, electronic systems were introduced to im- prove rider safety, the controllability of the vehicle in critical state of affairss, or pilotage systems. The possibility to interact via wireless communicating be- tween substructure and vehicles, every bit good as straight between vehicles, allows to develop wholly new application scenarios where coop eration of the different entities may be achieved. We now foremost present undertakings where such possible applications were discussed, before deducing the communicating challenges and so looking at the proficient systems that should supply the necessary communicating demands. A nomadic ad hoc web ( MANET ) is an independent system made up of nomadic Stationss interrelated by wireless associations devoid of the direction of a centralised substructure. Following gettable communications in the web, the nomadic Stationss ( or nodes ) can say besides the map of router to convey informations. In this chapter, we focus on the survey of the chief component in ITS systems which are inter vehicle communicating ( IVC ) and its correlative services. For route security services, the information on possible danger can be exchange in existent minute between vehicles to advise the drivers. Examples of services are non imperfect to route security applications but subsist for other types of map as good, peculiarly console applications ( portable Internet entree, set of autos, games, etc. ) offering interesting point of view for telecom operators looking for original service niches. Road security has been an of import anxiousness in the universe over the past few old ages w hile 1000000s of public dice every twelvemonth since of auto bad luck and many more are offended. gettable figures show that route dealing accidents in the Member States of the European Union per annum maintain about 39000 lives and escape more than 1.7 million people affronted, stand foring an predictable cost of 160 billion euros programmed public route systems and intelligent transit systems ( ITS ) were commence to rush up the development and employ of intelligent incorporated safety strategy that utilize information and communicating engineerings as an intelligent declaration, in order to escalate route safety and chair the figure of accidents in our prospect roads. In unsimilarity, as nomadic wireless attack became an of import portion of our life, and the omnipresent ‘anywhere, anytime’ connectivity strategy is further on magnetic attraction, Internet right to use from vehicles is in monolithic stipulate. The proliferation of cooperated system move in front for I TS and the focal point on information and transit engineerings services on one manus and the mounting figure of communicating infrastructure-enabled agencies of transit on the other manus has opened up fresh production theoretical accounts and cardinal market sections for legion stakeholders in the ITS-market. The Vehicular Communication Networks ( VCNs ) are a anchor of the envisage Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITS ) . Through enabling vehicles to pass on with each other by manner of Inter-Vehicle Communication ( IVC ) every bit good as with wayside base Stationss via Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication ( RVC ) , vehicular system could provide to safer and extra competent roads. The juncture and territory of entry of VCNs are mounting quickly, with abundant vehicle manufacturer and cryptic establishment sharply prolonging investigate and enlargement in this field. The grouping with involved antenna systems, and the progressive dispersion of committed localisation systems ( GP S ) produce VCNs pertinent for the development of forceful protection applications, numbering knock into and concern systems, driver helper and bright traffic supervising system. On the other manus, inter-vehicular communicating ( IVC ) besides fuels the tremendous chances in online car break and enables the incorporation through Internet services and applications. In this Chapter, we nearby a comprehensive portraiture of the province of the art of this speedy traveling research country indicating to look into, undertakings and homogeny attempts that have been done. We discover the exceeding facial visual aspect and challenges that distinguish these extremely self-motivated webs every bit good as their necessities, peculiarly in footings of excellence of service, promote preface and sanctuary. We discuss diverse forwarding and routing attack concentrating on Location-based method including ‘anchor-based routing ‘ . We review miscellaneous ‘intelligent flooding†™ and information airing progress. We terminate by researching future investigate waies in this field. The first IVC surveies have emerged at the beginning of the 1980s in Japan ( for illustration: Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving ) with the addition of people or ware travelling, therefore exciting the geographic expedition of new solutions such as automatic drive, intelligent route planning, etc. Several authorities establishments throughout the universe have led an explorative stage from different world-wide undertakings, affecting a big figure of research units. These undertakings have led to the definition of several possible paradigms and solutions, based on different attacks. In this manner, traffic direction systems were installed in big Nipponese metropoliss and on most urban and intercity main roads. The Japanese have made big investings in the development of driver information systems. In the instance of a main road, the system electronically monitors the velocity and volume of traffic and gives drivers instant warnings on accidents and holds. Warnings and other information for drivers are displayed on different variable message marks. In the Nipponese AHS ( Automated Highway System ) undertaking, the end was to plan an automated main road system for independent drive: control of the vehicle is assumed by a computing machine on board. In the USA, there is the Intelligent Transportation Society of America ( ITS America ) , which is a group of makers, authorities bureaus, universities and other endeavors. This group focuses on research, publicity and development and deployment coordination of ITS applications throughout the USA. As in Japan, the American authorities besides implemented the NAHSC ( National Automated Highway System Consortium ) in 1995. In Europe, the PROMETHEUS ( PROgraM European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety ) undertaking began in 1986 and included over 13 vehicle makers and several universities from 19 European states. In this context, several attacks and solutions refer ing ITSs have been developed, implemented and demonstrated. The consequences of this first measure were a elaborate analysis of the job and the development of a feasibleness survey to accomplish a better apprehension of the conditions and possible effects of using the engineering. Later, and with the technological promotion of communicating, computation and location equipments, other undertakings were carried out and have paved the manner for some IVC applications. Because of the importance of this field, new undertakings were initiated throughout the universe. In Europe, a certain figure of big scale undertakings have late emerged focussing on jobs related to IVC systems. Most of these undertakings were introduced in the context of research plans from the European Community ( 5thand 6ThursdayPCRD ) . However, a big bulk of these undertakings focus on the sole usage of bing substructure for implementing the IVC system, which can be highly expensive. Drive [ DRI 99 ] and GST [ GST 05 ] undertakings are first-class illustrations of these undert akings. DRiVE ( Dynamic Radio for IP Services in Vehicular Environments ) is meant to work on the convergence of different cellular engineerings and high throughput webs ( GSM, UMTS, DAB and DVB-T ) in order to implement the necessary foundation for the development of advanced IP services for vehicles. The GST ( Global Systems for Telematics ) [ GST 05 ] undertaking is besides intended for applications related to route safety. However, this undertaking focuses on the usage of the GSM web. It focuses on jobs in relation with procuring the web and service substructure, operation security and charge.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Charles Dickens: A Christmas Carol Essay

INTRODUCTION A Christmas Carol (1843) is one of the most recognizable stories in English literature. With its numerous literary, stage, television, radio, and cinematic adaptations, the tale has become a holiday classic, and the character Ebenezer Scrooge has become a cultural icon. First published in 1843, the novella garnered immediate critical and commercial attention and is credited with reviving interest in charitable endeavors, the possible perils of economic success, and festive traditions of the Christmas season. It is the first work in Dickens’s series of Christmas stories known collectively as the Christmas Books, as well as the most popular and enduring. Plot and Major Characters Set in the 1840s on Christmas Eve, A Christmas Carol chronicles the personal transformation of the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, the proprietor of a London counting house. A wealthy, elderly man, Scrooge is considered miserly and misanthropic: he has no wife or children; he throws out two men collecting for charity; he bullies and underpays his loyal clerk, Bob Cratchit; and he dismisses the Christmas dinner invitation of his kind nephew, Fred. Moreover, Scrooge is a strong supporter of the Poor Law of 1834, which allowed the poor to be interned in workhouses. As he prepares for bed on Christmas Eve in his solitary, dark chambers, Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his former partner, Jacob Marley. In life Marley was very similar in attitude and temperament to Scrooge: remote, cruel, and parsimonious. In death he has learned the value of compassion and warns Scrooge to reform his ways before it is too late. Marley announces that Scrooge will be visited by three more specters: the Spirits of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge back to his unhappy childhood, revealing that the young boy’s experiences with poverty and abandonment inspired a desire to succeed and gain material advantage. Unfortunately, Scrooge’s burgeoning ambition and greed destroyed his relationship with his fiancà ©e and his friends. The Ghost of Christmas Present is represented by a hearty, genial man who reminds Scrooge of the joy of human companionship, which he has rejected in favor of his misanthropic existence. Finally, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come appears in a dark robe and shrouded in mystery. Silently, the ghost reveals the ambivalent reaction to news of Scrooge’s own death. Scrooge realizes that he will die alone and without love, and that he has the power and money to help those around him—especially Bob Cratchit’s ailing son, Tiny Tim. Scrooge begs the ghost for another chance and wakes in his bed on Christmas morning, resolved to changing his life by being generous and loving to his family, employees, and the poor. Major Themes A Christmas Carol has been deemed a biting piece of social commentary by some. Critics have underscored the scathing criticism of 1840s London, an economically and socially stratified city that Dickens believed imprisoned its poor and oppressed its lower classes. The prevailing socio-economic theory of that time held that anyone who was in debt should be put in a poorhouse. In his story, Dickens contended that the reformation of such a materialistic, shallow society can be achieved gradually through the spiritual transformation of each individual. The story is well regarded for its expression of a fundamental faith in humanity and its unflagging censure of social injustice, which was inspired by Dickens’s troubled background and his visit to the Cornish tin mines where he observed young children laboring under appalling conditions. As Scrooge transforms from a cruel, embittered miser to a kindly philanthropist, Dickens advocates a more forgiving, generous society that values spiritual growth, not material wealth. Other major thematic concerns in A Christmas Carol include the role of memory, the importance of family, and the soul-deadening effect of greed on the human spirit. Critical Reception Upon its initial publication, A Christmas Carol was greeted with mixed reviews. Some commentators derided the tale as too sentimental and laden with exaggeration; other critics maintained that A Christmas Carol lacked the complexity of Dickens’s later work. Yet the novella remains a Christmas favorite. Commentators praise Dickens’s evocative portrayal of 1840s London and his passionate exploration of social and political issues. Dickens’s fervent belief in social justice as depicted through A Christmas Carol is credited with inspiring an outpouring of charitable endeavors during his time and a revival of Christmas spirit and traditional celebrations. Critics have also explored the fairy-tale and gothic elements in A Christmas Carol, and many praise Dickens’s use of wry humor in the story. The relevance and power of Scrooge’s transformation from forlorn old niggard to benignant philanthropist is regarded as the key to the novella’s unflagging popular appeal. Several scholars have debated the nature of Scrooge’s conversion, which is known as â€Å"the Scrooge problem.† Some critics, including Edmund Wilson, conclude that the transformation is a temporary one; others have maintained that it is total and irrevocable. Scrooge’s metanoia has also been placed within its historical and literary context, and critics have related it to the religious revival then fervent in nineteenth-century England. A few full-length studies of the novella have traced the impact of the story on English and American culture and have discussed the copious imitations, adaptations, and modernized versions of the tale.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Improving the Shopping Experience at Target Essay

Improving the Shopping Experience at Target - Essay Example This paper will look at the overall shopping experience of customers at Target Corporation and suggest specific steps on how these experiences can be enhanced. In order to do this, this paper would want first to identify the distribution channels that Target uses. The following paragraph aims to acquaint readers with the different "places" used by Target to market its products. Place is one of the four essential components of a marketing mix. Place generally refers to the distribution channel of business organizations. It is irrefutable that "place" had evolved over time due to different external factors in the business environment. From small shops, retailers now sell products through malls, hypermarkets, supermarkets, and department store. The popularity and the commercialization of the internet marked the proliferation of dotcoms. Online presence now allows retailers to sell and market products to customers with a mouse click. Thus, in considering the overall shopping experience of a customer in Target, both of these channels should be considered. Target traces its root in 1902 when Michael Dayton opened a retail store called Godfellows in Downtown Minneapolis. From its humble beginning, the company is now the sixth largest retailer in the United States, lagging behind major players Wal-Mart, The Home Depot, Kroggers Sears Holding Corporation, and Costco. The company is also recognized as 27th on the list of Fortune 500 (Target Corporation 1). Target is typically viewed by customers as "having everything under one roof" as their products ranges from household goods, cosmetics, electronics, garments, books, grocery items. In order to enhance buying experience, Target retail shops usually brings together video rental store, pharmacy, portrait studio, one-hour processing lab, optical store, tire and oil change shop, and fast food outlets like Starbucks Coffee, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell. Unlike its competitors, the company recognizes itself not just a discount store but a discount department store by its more upscale store format and younger target market (Target Corporation 5). 3. Areas of Improvement Generally, customers who report excellent shopping experience at Target greatly appreciates the value brought about by lower prices, wide selection, and the convenience of finding everything under one roof. In terms of online shopping, Target is often complimented because of its website which is user-friendly and very easy to navigate. It should also be noted that Target delivers ordered products promptly, often sooner than its customer expects. However, as with other business organizations the shopping experience both on the Target's physical distribution channel and cybershop. 3.1 Customer Service One of the most common complaints of customers when shopping on Target's discount department stores and online stores is poor customer service. Customers report that the company's employees are less approachable, unaccommodating, and are sometimes rude. Others complain about the lack of employees to assist them in their purchases. In online stores, customers criticize the lack of knowledge of some of the customer representatives. This poor customer s

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Ruth Benedict Scholarship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Ruth Benedict - Scholarship Essay Example Please do these questions on that pamphet: World War Two has taught Americans that no matter how different we all are, we all basically live in one world, no matter how big it is, or how different we all look. It has also taught us that though we come from different races, we are all the same. We are all human beings. We all have our differences but there is nothing which is irreconcilable. The key is unity and understanding compromise. We must all learn to live together or perish together, if we will not be able to learn to put up with our differences. Man must believe in his good nature that a certain kind of world understanding would be reached, that he has his virtues and is capable of putting them into practice. Science has taught us of the unity of the human race and that we are all the same. Our superficial physical differences are just a by-product of the region where each group of people lived. Just like what is stated in the text "the world's small population was dispersed into different places and they slowly developed physical differences". This fact has changed in a way that it has been made stronger. More nations are now united. Technology has paved the way for this. Now, the world seems to be geared into acquiring a universal language in the form of the English language. Aside from the bible truth that we were all born of Adam and Eve, science also proves that all human beings are all the same. The differences are just all superficial. The anatomy of the human body just basically proves that we all just have one makeup. We have the same number of bones, the same set of organs, eyes, ears, teeth, etc. One could break down every living cell in our body, everything would point out, and taxonomy affirms that the human race is just one big family. Our bodies are undeniable proofs of the brotherhood of men. 4. List all the typical features that are usually associated with racial differences. (173ff.) According to Benedict:The Negro has dark skin while the white men's skin is considered too sallow. The shape of the head is also a racial trait. People's hair is often the same over great areas: frizzy hair, lank hair, wavy hair. Europeans remained quite hairy, but in some parts of the world body hair almost disappeared. Blue eyes appeared in the north. In some places in Asia, a fold of skin developed over the inner corner of the eye and produced what we call a slant eye. Some noses were too flat or too pointed. The body structures are also different. 5. What did Europeans do with these differences (172/3) Do people still do that today In a way, these differences prompted men, not only the Europeans to discriminate. Appearances were used to set standards and eventually judge people not for who they are, for their abilities and the worth of their existence but on how they look. The Europeans categorized people into many different races. Each race was described according to skin color, kind of hair, kind of lips, height, and head shape. People still discriminate. Some are quite blatant while some do it covertly. The point is people could look different or could be different but that

Strategic Financial Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Strategic Financial Management - Essay Example With an investment of 4.8 billion, the vision of Scottish Power is to be the UK's best-integrated energy supplier and a world leader in Renewable as a vertically integrated energy company. In May 2005, Scottish Power sold it's regulated US business for 2.25 billion in cash and had returned to the shareholders in June. In 2006, it achieved profit before tax 675 million, which was 47%, increase of the previous year. Adjusted earnings per share for continuing operation at 27.9 pence, which were 46% ahead. The adjusted earnings per share for the group at 44,1 pence were 22% ahead. Dividend payable on the new ordinary shares in issue following the return of cash capital reorganisation, was 9.4 pence per share bringing the total dividend for the year to 25.0 pence in respect of each ordinary share held on the relevant record date for last three years. The Market value of the shareholder's equity is directly observable from the capital markets. In theory, the market value should be equal the warranted economic value of the firm. The true economic value of a firm or business or division or project of any strategy depends on the cash flows and the appropriate discount rate. Here we shall discuss briefly three most commonly advocated methods of shareholder value. The first method, called the free cash flow method, uses the weighted average cost of debt and equity 3 to discount free cash flows. You can recall that free cash flows are calculated as follows: Here,PBIT= profit before interest and tax, T= corporate tax rate, DEP= tax depreciation, ONCKI= other non-cash items,NWC+ change in net working capital 4,CAPEX= incremental investment. Terminal or residual value reflects the value of post-planning cash flows. Thus, the economic value or simply value of a firm or a business is: The value of a firm or a business generating perpetual FCF will be as follows: We may recall that FCF estimates do not make any adjustment for interest charges. Thus, FCF do not include financing 5 effect. The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) includes after tax cost of debt. Hence, the financing effect is incorporated in WACC rather than cash flows. WACC, you may, recall, is calculated as follows: We may recall that WACC is based on assumptions that the firm has an optimum 6 capital structure and that debt is perpetual. The second method calculate the economic value of a firm or a business into two parts: Notice that ku is the cost of capital of an un-levered firm. For the levered firm, the second part includes the value of interest tax shields (VITS): Thus, the value of levered firm of business is: Value of a levered firm = Value of a un-levered firm+ Value of interest fax shield We can obtain value

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Controversy Analysis and Rhetorical Analysis Essay

Controversy Analysis and Rhetorical Analysis - Essay Example Thus, Geber states that â€Å"While the pioneers of these movements, though passionate for changes in what seemed like a redundant and hypocritical society, worked hard to bring about radical changes in cultures and religions the world over, proponents of the legalization feel that they are indeed the messiah to the Arizona population†. In this statement, figurative language is used as it combines both assonance and alliteration to express the thoughts of theses first campaigners of the legalization of Marijuana.  So, who quantifies or qualifies legalization or prohibition? The controversy is pretentious and shows a society that is not yet ready for a change. Thus, Geber states that â€Å"While the pioneers of these movements, though passionate for changes in what seemed like a redundant and hypocritical society, worked hard to bring about radical changes in cultures and religions the world over, proponents of the legalization feel that they are indeed the messiah to the Ar izona population†. In this statement, figurative language is used as it combines both assonance and alliteration to express the thoughts of theses first campaigners of the legalization of Marijuana.   Some people are of a different opinion. â€Å"For what seems to be strong political reasons, this will indeed not seem like a smart decision as it will pass for reckless policy bred out of ignorance and the indifference to the detrimental and profound effects it has on the youth and the general public safety†.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Lack of Universal Healthcare amongst people of Low Socioeconomic Essay

Lack of Universal Healthcare amongst people of Low Socioeconomic Status - Essay Example The situation has not changed since then. Pappas et al. has found that between 1960 and 1986, the gap between the mortality of people coming from low financial status and high financial status had increased a lot (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.8). It was also found that as the income increases, the mortality rate decreases (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.8). This makes it very clear that vulnerability to diseases and mortality of a person strongly depends on his financial status (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.8). People in adult age group coming from lower income families suffer from poor health five times more than the people coming from high income families (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.5). The sad thing is that, this situation applies even in case of children. Cohen et al. found that children belonging to lower SES families are more likely to develop health problems like â€Å"injury, asthma, ear diseases, physical inactivity etc.†, than the children from higher SES families (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.9). One of the main factors for this difference is the environment. Environmental Hazards It has been found that the toxic waste of the different nature is dumped in areas where people from lower SES live (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.12). These people are exposed to environmental hazards and they lack the resources to fight these hazards (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.12). Moreover, people living in the lower SES communities follow unhealthy lifestyle as they are addicted to junk food, smoking, drugs and physical lethargy (Adler & Stewart, 2010, p.12). Also, the number of people who smoke is very large in the lower SES communities. This affects not only the health of people who smoke but also the health of their children and their neighbors...This paper presents the study of the background and the researches regarding the health disparity due to lower socioeconomic status. Every nation should try to provide equal treatment and opportunities to its people, regardless of their backgro und and socioeconomic status. As it is a birthright of every human being to enjoy health care facilities provided by the government and the health sectors. Living a healthy life is not only beneficial for personal life but is also important for healthy growth of the nation. The health disparity is also the result of the increase in the inequality level of the income in last thirty years. This disparity in the income level has severely distorted the equal distribution of health and social resources. In today’s world, where every little problem of human beings is solved with the help of innovative ideas and technology, the helpless situation experienced by people with lower SES is a blot on human. Health disparity occurs when certain groups of people do not get access to the available health resources due to their disadvantageous social or personal status. For example, people belonging to lower SES do not get proper and easy access to health screening, treatment options, culturally knowledgeable staff personnel, information on health benefits etc. The only way to eradicate the disparity in health care for people coming from lower SES is to provide them with adequate environmental facilities along with health care programs. However, what is most important is to make them feel cared for.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Organic Solar cells Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Organic Solar cells - Essay Example In 1954, three scientists called Chapin, Fuller and Pearson developed the first solar cell in a lab. It was until the 1970s when the physics community caught up with them by working on a series of researches in the field of solar energy. Eastman Kodak became the first commercial organisation to create an organic cell in 1986. The device was made by an analyst called Tang, who worked for the organisation. More research continued to be done in the field and by 2007; a high efficient solar cell was created at a spectrolab. It had values of about 40.7%, which was a great improvement from Chapin and his colleagues’ 6% (Rivers 96). Currently, more research is underway in the field in order to boost outcomes. Solar cells are a used in electronic devices like calculators and laptops. Satellite images heavily rely on these materials for carrying out their roles. One is also likely to find the products in remote locations where no connections to power grids exist. However, they are yet to be regarded as a reliable source for electricity for electricity distribution. The cost of making solar energy from these materials is also prohibitive on a large scale. It costs four times, as much money, to generate 1 KWh of electricity from solar energy in comparison to conventional methods (Iyer 17). These typical methods include cycle gas turbines and remote diesel generation. Organic cells could be the answer to reduction of costs and elimination of other prohibitive factors in solar cell technology. Organic solar cells have low cost processing and high throughput. This implies that it is relatively easy to spray, vaporise, spin coat and print them. They capture light efficiently due to high absorption rates. The devices can even be processed in solution form at room temperature. Silicon-based solar cells are unlikely to go down in terms of prices, but this is untrue for organic ones. Additionally, they

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Economics of the movie business Essay Example for Free

Economics of the movie business Essay Most of the movies that are eventually released are cofinanced. This is a term that is used within the movie industry to describe those films for which there are more than one firm that share both the cost of production as well as the revenues. Nearly one-third of all the movies that are released are cofinanced. Various studies have shown that the main reason for cofinancing is to manage and share risk. Most of the major studios are in the category of publicly traded firms where the investors are free to carry out their own diversification decisions. Not always is the cofinancing decision related to the movie returns as the studios rarely cofinance highly risky films1. Demand is difficult to predict and thus financial risk remains to be a characteristic of the film industry since most of the cost is incurred long before the demand can be actualized. It’s thus the reason that most of the authors in this field have argued that the key variable that shapes the industry is the financing strategy adopted. Mainly, there are three ways in which cofinancing would reduce risk associated with the movie production. First, the cofinancing of the relatively risky films by the studios would give them the opportunity to participate in the less risky projects. Second, cofinancing would allow studios to fine tune their portfolios thus gaining the advantage of covariances of the gains across the movies. The third advantage of cofinancing is the simple law of large numbers to share a potential loss . Data collection The data to be used here in this paper is the information provided forth in Goettler, R. L and Leslie, P. (2004) where information on over 3,826 movies was exhibited in the US between 1987 to 2000. The primary source of the data was the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). The analysis focused mainly on ownership choices of the major studios. Out of the 3,826 movies examined, 1,305 were produced by the major studios. The analysis here focuses on ownership choices that have been made by the major studios. Movie profitability has been based on the return on investment, RIO, which is defined as the revenue divided by the cost. Revenue in this case was measured as the North America box office revenue and cost was obtained from the production budget. Film’s negative cost, which is the standard measure of production cost was also used. Other cost such as advertising are in most cases proportional to the cost of production and were thus not evaluated in this kind of study. Thus the ROI evaluated here was basically the relative profitability of the films but not the absolute profitability. Also the measure of revenues in this study excluded some revenues such as foreign box and video revenue. It would be ideal to use all the revenue sources but the approach would have limited the number of films in the analysis as most of this kind of data is only available only to a subset of films. At the same time limiting the analysis only to the films with this kind of extra data may introduce selection bias as most of this data maybe limited to the successful films only1. Identification of cofinanced films The listing of a production company is the first sign that there are cofinancing partners but this is not a sufficient condition. The most important criteria is to know if a firm contributes towards the production cost. Its worth to note that a firm can be credited for having contributed into the production company of a film after initiating then selling the project to a major studio even without retaining revenue shares. This kind of arrangement referred to as â€Å"first-look deal† is common between a semi-independent production company and a studio in a long-term relationship. The criteria used here in determining if a film is cofinanced is that first if a major studio is on the list of the production company for a certain film, then the assumption is that the studio has some ownership stake in the film. Second, Variety magazine was a source of those firms with the first-look deals from the â€Å"Facts on Pacts† list and those that are equity partners. The assumption here was that a firm was a joint owner if it was on the production company list and also on the equity partner2. For those movie that an independent firm and a major studio cofinanced, the question of whether either of these two had the option of being sole-owner remains. In simple term, one may also question which among the two firms initiated the entire project? The available information suggest that the studio usually has the mandate to decide if it will co-own or just be a sole-owner. This kind of decision called â€Å"greenlighting† is usually made during decision point of whether to make the movie or not. Complications do arise like when two companies have the same subsidiary structure such as having the same parent company and at the same time end up owning the same movie. In such cases, it was assumed that the movie was not cofinanced since the production divisions happen to work as integrated components of the parent studio rather than as being competitors. Another point of ownership ignored was the cases where the directors or the star actors negotiate a part of the movie revenues. This was so because most of this happens as a result of the directors/actors strong bargaining power to have a share of the revenue once the movie is successful rather than a strong will to share and manage risk.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Relationship Between Self Confidence Academic Performance

Relationship Between Self Confidence Academic Performance RESEARCH PROPOSAL Title: The Relationship between Students’ Self Confidence and Learning Achievements in Descriptive Writing of the Tenth Grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013/2014 Academic Year. The Background of The Research Language is a medium used by people to communicate with others. Lock states that language is a medium of human to communicate that including of words either spoken or written.[1] Through the language, people can easily share their ideas, opinions, and feelings to others, either in spoken or written expression. English is the language that is used by almost people in the world. Rose assumed that international experts calculated that about 400 million people use English as a second language.[2] Therefore, English is the most dominant language used by people in the world. In Indonesia, one of the goals in teaching English is developing students’ communication skill by using English covering four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These four language skills have to be mastered by the students. In other words, learning English is aimed to make students to be able to use English in communication. Among the four skills, writing is viewed as the most difficult skill to be learned. According to Gorrel and Laird, â€Å"Writing requires thinking, and thinking is always complicated and hard.†[3] Therefore, it is clear that writing needs hard thinking in producing words, sentences, paragraphs and arranging them into a good sequence. In fact, the difficulties of writing also happened when the writer was doing training (PPL) in 41 Senior High School Jakarta. There are some factors that make writing becomes difficult for students. The psychology of the students can also influence the result of their learning achievement in writing. From the explanation above, the writer is interested in doing research to analyze the relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievements in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta. Therefore, the result of the research can be informed to the teacher as references in his/her teaching, what should be done in the future. The Scope of the Research In this research, the writer limits the analysis into the relationship between self-confidence and learning achievement’s students in writing especially in descriptive writing. The writer wants to make the questioner and written task form at tenth grade students of SMAN 41 Jakarta. The Problem of the Research Based on the explanation above, the writer formulates the problem as follows â€Å"Is there any significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta?† The Objective of the Research The objectives of this research is to find out the empirical data weather there is the significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta. Theoretical Framework Self-Confidence The Understanding of Self-Confidence Self-confidence is important for everyone, especially for students. According to Rakhmat, self-confidence is belief about ability himself/herself.[4] The key terms are belief, and himself/herself. Belief means the person has a faith about their ability. Himself/herself means being independent. It means self-confidence is something that is owned by people, and it makes them to believe their own ability. Rodgers in Koswara added self-confidence is the ability to make decisions and judgments without depending on others (independent).[5] The key terms is without depending on others. It means self-confidence is able to make decisions by their own selves. Hakim states, â€Å"Kepercayaan diri adalah suatu keyakinan seseorang terhadap segala aspek kelebihan yang dimilikinya dan keyakinan tersebut membuatnya merasa mampu untuk bisa mencapai berbagai tujuan di dalam hidupnya.†[6] In other words self-confidence is someone’s belief about all aspects that owned by themselves, and that belief makes them for being able to achieve something in their live. The key term is someone’s belief. Someone’s belief refers to someone who believes about their knowledge which then makes them to feel like they can do anything. It can be inferred that self-confidence is something that has someone about their competence which then makes them to feel like they can do anything. From those statements above, it can be concluded that self-confidence is something that someone has already had, and it seems like they can do anything while they have it without relying on others. The Characteristics of Self-Confidence Fatimah suggests some characteristics of self-confidence, there are:[7] Believe in the ability or competence of self, then not need praise, recognition, acceptance or respect from others. Not to be motivated to show the conformist attitude in order to be accepted by others. Dare to accept and face the rejection of others, dare to be yourself. Have a good self-control. Have a positive outlook about themselves, other people, and situations outside of them. Have a realistic expectations of themselves, so that when the expectations was realized, they were still able to see the positive side of themselves and the situation. Moreover, the characteristics of individuals who have self-confidence according to Hakim, they are:[8] Poised in doing something. Have the potential and ability of adequate. Be able to neutralize the tensions that arise in certain situations. Be able to adapt and communicate. Have the mental and physical condition of supporting the appearance. Have the sufficient intelligence. Have the sufficient level of formal education. Have the skills and other skills that support the life. Have the ability to socialize. Have the background of good family education. Have the life experience that forges mental and tenacity on variety of situations. Have the positive attitude in the face of problems. From those characteristics above, the students or individuals that have self-confidence are believe in the competence of self, dare to be yourself, have a good self-control, poised in doing something, be able to adapt and communicate, have the sufficient intelligence, have the ability to socialize, and have the positive attitude in the face of problems. Learning Achievement The Understanding of Learning According to Arthur in Syaiful defines that learning is a modification of behavior through experience and training.[9] The key term is modification of behavior. It means learning is a process that can change the behavior of someone through training and practicing. The second statement from Brown, â€Å"learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction[10]†. It means learning is a process to get the knowledge by someone through study, experience, or instruction. The third definition comes from Good and Brophy in Purwanto, â€Å"Learning is the development of new associations as a result of experience.†[11] The key words are the development, and result of experience. The development refers to the process of the increasing knowledge from not knowing anything to know anything. Result of experience refers to something that the students face when they get the knowledge while they receive it. It can be inferred that learning is the process of getting the new knowledge when they study. From those definitions above, it can be concluded that learning is a process to get the knowledge or skill by studying or practicing. Moreover, it can change someone’s behavior. The Understanding of Achievement Soeito stated that achievement can be formulated as a relatively change of behavior as a result of experience in the past.[12] The key term is change of behavior. Change of behavior means the behavior of someone to be better. It can be summarized that achievement is something that can make the behavior of someone to be better as a result of their experienced. Travers added that achievement is the result of what an individual has learned from some educational experiences.[13] The key term is the result. The result means something which has been reached as an efforts. It can be summarized that achievement is something which has been reached as an efforts. Djamarah defined that achievement is the result of an activity that has been done, created, either individually or in a group.[14] The key term is has been done. Has been done means after the learning process. It can be inferred that achievement is the good result of an activity that has already done after the learning process by someone or in a group. From those definition above the writer concluded that achievement is something that individual earned after giving effort during the activity and it can also change the individual’s behavior. The Understanding of Learning Achievement By determining the previous description about learning and achievement. The writer concludes that learning achievement is something that individual earned after giving effort during the learning process, and it can also change the individual’s behavior. Writing The Understanding of Writing Writing is one kind of media that is used to communicate which is visible. Abrams states, â€Å"Writing is a visual form of communication, either printed in hard-copy or in electronic form.†[15] The key term is visual form; it means the writing is something that can be seen by the reader. Gould states, â€Å"†¦writing is not speech; it is careful arrangement of words on a page which has its own idioms and format and does not transcribe the informalities of speech performance.† The key terms are on a page, and format. On a page means the ideas that laid on a surface of paper. Format means the rules in writing. Therefore, it means writing are ideas that put on a page of paper which has the rules in writing. From two definitions above, it can be inferred from the first statement that writing is something which visible to the reader. While the second statement from Gould completes the first statement, writing is not speech which is arrangement of words on a page of paper that has the rules in making writing. The third statement comes from Yule; he states that â€Å"†¦writing as the symbolic representation of language through the use of graphic signs.†[16] The key terms are symbolic representation, and graphic signs. Symbolic representation means symbols which has the meaning. Graphic signs means the writing that made by people on a papers or any surface. It means writing is one of kinds of media which translated into meaningful symbol or letters on papers or any surface can be written upon. From the statements above, the writer concluded that the writing is ideas whose forms are using symbols. They are put on a page of paper that can be seen and have clear formats. Types of Writing According to Wishon and Burks there are four types of writing; there are Narration, Description, Expository, and Argumentation. Narration Narration is the form of writing used to relate the story of acts or events. Narration places occurrences in time and tells what happened according to natural time sequence. Types of narration include novels, short stories and news stories, as well as a large part of our everyday social interchange in the form of letters and conversation. Description Description reproduces the way things look, smell, taste, feel, or sound; it is may also evoke mood, such as happiness, loneliness or fear. It is used to visual image of people, places, even of units of time-days, times of day of the seasons. It may be used also to describe more than the outward appearance of people. It may tell about their traits character or personality. Exposition Exposition is used in giving information, making explanation, and interpreting meanings. It includes editorials, essays, informative and instructional material. Used in combination with narrative, exposition supports and illustrates. Used apart of narrative, it stands alone as an essay. Used alone or with narrative, exposition may be developed in a number of ways. Argumentation Argumentation is used in persuading and convincing. It is closely related to exposition and is often found combined with it. Argumentation is used to make a case or to prove or disapprove a statement of proposition.[17] From those types, the writer would focus on descriptive writing. Descriptive Writing The Understanding of Description Oshima and Hogue stated, â€Å"Descriptive writing appeals to the senses, so it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and/or sound.†[18] The key words are tells something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and sound. It means telling the readers about the characteristics and physical appearances of something. In other words, descriptive writing is telling the readers about something in particular by mentioning the characteristic and physical appearance. Similar with Oshima and Hogue, Wishon states, â€Å"Description gives sense impressions the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things.†[19] The key terms are gives impressions the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things. It means description telling the impressions of how something looks like. In other words description is describing of how something looks like. Trimmer assumed, â€Å"Description is a strategy for presenting a verbal portrait of person, place, or thing.†[20] The key terms are presenting a person, place, and thing. It means description is a composition that presents about person, place, or thing to others people. It can be inferred that writing is presenting about person, place, and thing. From those definitions above, the writer concluded that description is a way to describe the person, place, and thing about their physical appearances and characteristics that can be looked, felt, smelled, sound, and tasted. The Generic Structure Of Description According to Doddy et al, the generic structures of description are: Identification: Identifies phenomenon to describe. It means in this paragraph to describe about physical appearances. Description: Describe parts, qualities, characters. It means in this paragraph to describe about characteristic of the object and the detail information.[21] Research Methodology The Time and Location of the Research The research will be conducted in SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013/2014 Academic Year on ________ 2014. The Population and Sample of the Research The population respondents will be taken from the students in tenth grade at SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013 / 2014 Academic Year. The writer will take 60 students from two classes at SMAN 41 Jakarta which is chosen randomly. The Method of the Research The method of the research is a correlation method. To know the significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievements in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta. The Variable of the Research There are two variables of the research, they are: Independent variable (X): Self-confidence. Dependent variable (Y): Learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta. The Instrument of the Research In this research, the writer will use a questioner to know the students’ self-confidence. Then, the writer will ask to the students to make the descriptive writing. The Technique of Data Analysis The data analysis of this research, the writer uses the quantitative research method; the writer processes and analyzes the data by using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. The formulas as follows:[22] Notes: r: Pearson r (the coefficient of correlation). N: Population. X: the individual scores get from the writing task. Y: the individual scores get from the equivalent task. ∑X: total scores get from the writing task. ∑Y: total scores get from the equivalent task. ∑XY: total scores of X multiplied by Y. ∑X2: total scores of quadrate X. ∑Y2: total scores of quadrate Y. The Procedure of the Research In this research, the writer will be done steps in doing the research: Asking for permission to the chief of English Department in HAMKA University to do the research. Asking for permission letter to the HAMKA University to be given to SMAN 41 Jakarta. Asking for permission to the headmaster and the English teacher of SMAN 41 Jakarta to do research. Arranging the time to do research. Preparing the questioner of self-confidence and writing task for instrument of testing writing. Asking the students to answer the questioner and make the descriptive writing. Collecting the data. Analyzing the data. Making conclusion of the research Making a report of the research result. Bibliography Abrams, Zsuzsanna. http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/writing/01/, viewed on January 3, 2014 Azar , Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar (Guide for Correcting Writing Error).New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching 4. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. _______. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching: Fifth Edition.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Djamarah. 1994. Prestasi Belajar dan Kompetensi Guru. (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional. Doddy, Achmad. et al. 2008. Developing English Competencies: For Senior High School (SMA/MA) Grade X. Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Fatimah. 2006. Psikologi Perkembangan: Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Bandung: Pustaka Setia. Gorrel, Robert M. and Charlton Laird. 1962. Modern English Hand Book. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs N.J Hakim , Thursan. 2002. Mengatasi Rasa Tidak Percaya Diri. Jakarta : Purwa Suara. Koswara. 1989. Teori Motivasi dan Penelitiannya. Bandung: PT Angkasa. Lock, Graham. 1997. Functional English Grammar; An Introduction for Second Language Teacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Oshima, Alice and Ann Hogue. 1997. Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Edition. New York: Longman. Purwanto, M. Ngalim. 1996. Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Rakhmat. 2008. Psikologi Komunikasi: edisi revisi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Rose, Richard. The Internet Goes EFL (English as a Second Language), retrieved 30 May 2013. From www.cspp.strath.ac.uk/InetBrooking.pdf Sagala , Syaiful. 2003. Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT Alfabeta. Soeito. 1974. Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Sumarsono, Sigit. 2013. Statistika Terapan: Dengan Alur Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa. Jakarta: UHAMKA. Travers, John P. 1970. Fundamentals of Educational Psychology. Scrantom, Pensylvania: International Textbook Company. Wishon, George E. and Julia M. Burks. 1968. Let’s Write English: Complete Book. New York: Litton Educational Publishing Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language: Fourth Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press. [1] Graham Lock. Functional English Grammar; An Introduction for Second Language Teacher.(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1997), p. 219 [2] Richard Rose. The Internet Goes EFL (English as a Second Language), retrieved 30 May 2013. From www.cspp.strath.ac.uk/InetBrooking.pdf [3] Robert M. Gorrel and Charlton Laird, Modern English Hand Book, (New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs N.J, 1962), p. 1 [4] Rakhmat, Psikologi Komunikasi, edisi revisi, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 2008), P.46 [5] Koswara, E, Teori Motivasi dan Penelitiannya, (Bandung: PT Angkasa, 1989), P. 23 [6] Thursan, Hakim, Mengatasi Rasa Tidak Percaya Diri, (Jakarta : Purwa Suara, 2002), P.6 [7] Fatimah, Psikologi Perkembangan: Perkembangan Peserta Didik, (Bandung: Pustaka Setia, 2006), P. 42 [8] Hakim, Op. Cit., P.20 [9] Syaiful Sagala, Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran, (Bandung: PT Alfabeta, 2003), P. 12 [10] H. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching: fifth edition, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000), P.7 [11] M. Ngalim Purwanto, Psikologi Perkembangan, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 1996), P. 85 [12] Soeito, Psikologi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1974), P.5 [13] Travers, John P, Fundamentals of Educational Psychology, (Scrantom, Pensylvania: International Textbook Company, 1970), P.447 [14] Djamarah, Prestasi Belajar dan Kompetensi Guru, (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, 1994), P.19 [15] Zsuzsanna Abrams,http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/writing/01/, viewed on January 3, 2014 [16] George Yule, The Study of Language: Fourth Edition, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 212 [17] George E. Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Let’s Write English: Complete Book, (New York: Litton Educational Publishing, 1968), pp. 321-377 [18] Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Edition, (New York: Longman, 1997) P.50 [19] George E. Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Op. Cit., P.322 [20] Trimmer/Sommers, Writing With a Purpose: Mc Crimmon Short Edition, (†¦.. [21] Achmad Doddy et al, Developing English Competencies: For Senior High School (SMA/MA) Grade X. (Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008) P. 128 [22] Sigit sumarsono, Statistika Terapan: Dengan Alur Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa, (Jakarta: UHAMKA, 2013), P.114

Friday, September 20, 2019

Death Penalty :: essays research papers

Title: Death Penalty Author: Ryan Rating: 17 Rate this Paper The death penalty should be upheld by the government because countless dollars are spent holding criminals in jail. Also jails are more overpopulated than ever. What really annoys people is that these cold-hearted criminals are put on parole after only serving several years. Being against killing is okay, but putting a life to rest in order to save more lives makes more sense. Criminals live an easy life in prison, and they probably don’t think twice about their crime. First of all, people pay taxes for prisoners to live a healthy lifestyle. Criminals eat, sleep, and are even given an education. All these excessive luxuries will be taken from most of the prisoners who deserve the death penalty. The death row cellmates will be put on a strict watch of what they do. When we get more prisoners on death row who will eventually die we will save money that we usually pay to keep prisoners in jail. People who are against the death penalty probably did not have someone close to them t aken away by a murderer. The families and friends of victims have a right to justice. Seeing the horror one person or a couple can bring to many should send a message to the public that this should stop. Many people will agree that the death penalty is just. In addition the death penalty can lower crime. The way a criminal should be put to death should be taken into consideration. It should be determined by what they did to deserve the death penalty. The retaliation of the government on a criminal should be derived from â€Å"An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth† way of thinking. This issue should be debated after the death penalty is put into affect. Recent views raise a new question on an â€Å"ancient† punishment.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Housing Problem :: essays research papers

Many economists argue that market solutions are more efficient than government agencies in providing services even when it comes to â€Å"merit goods†. In the discussion of housing problem, I would disagree with the economist’s view. Housing is a very complicate issue that I believe it will work the best by the cooperation of market and government agencies. The Canadian government has worked for many years on the housing issue, but does not seem to have any adequate solutions to solve the problem. The housing market, unlike other industry, has a dominant feature of inelastic short-run supply. This characteristic of the housing market has made a great obstacle in coping with the problem. In fact, we may look at other countries’ experiences and learn how to deal with the problem effectively. Canadian government’s housing policy is based on the idea that everyone is entitled to decent and affordable housing. Housing is a necessity and everyone needs a place t o live. It is for this reason that government set its goal to ensure everyone is living in housing of adequate quality at a price they can afford. However, the government has turned into wrong definition of decency and affordability. Firstly, decency is subjective according to different cultures. I think that the Canadian government is setting a very high value on living environment, and such a high standard may cause more difficulties in solving the problem. Secondly, Canadian government has continuously reduced its standard in defining affordability. It was consider affordable if housing cost no more than 20% of your income. Nevertheless, the standard has been reduced to no more than 40% until recently. Such dramatic change of the figure has made the goal become ambiguous. Practically, the government has tried many methods in dealing with the housing problem. Housing code enforcement is a method that tries to regulate minimal conditions for rental housing. However, this method doe s not seem to work because it brings additional costs to the tenant. On the other hand, the government tries to help people become homeowner by benefits in kind, such as imposing tax exemption on first home down payment and low interest rate on mortgages. However, the method does not really aim at helping the poor. Moreover, the government tries to increase the supply of housing by building new shelters and buying existing apartments. Yet, none of these work efficiently. The reason that building new shelters does not work is because most of these new housing projects are expensive and time consuming.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay example --

There are over 160,000 fast food restaurant in America, according to statistic brain. Fast food is food that is prepared and served quickly, typically in a store or a restaurant with precook or preheated ingredients, then served to the customer in a carryout packaging. Everyone should think twice before consuming fast food, it’s unhealthy and bad for you. Even if it’s easy and cheap, the food isn’t prepared or taken care of properly, plus the health risk prevail over the five minutes of gratification. The global influences of the fast food industry are the causes of today’s health problems. Everywhere you go, it doesn’t matter what country you’re in there are fast food restaurants. â€Å"Fast food is now served at stadiums, airports, zoos, high schools, elementary schools, and universities, on cruise ships, trains, and airplanes, at K-marts, Walmart’s, gas stations, and even at hospital cafeterias.†(Schlosser) Fast food com panies advertise their product with flashy commercials and catchy slogans to make the public aware of their product by stating that the product is healthy and nutritious, but they don’t display how animals are kept and the chemicals that are placed into making the food. These animals compromise of calorie filled, unhealthy, chemically conditioned substances. â€Å"Over the last three decades, fast food has infiltrated every nook and canny of American society. An industry that began with a handful of modest hot dog and hamburger stands in southern California has spread to every corner of the nation, selling a board range of foods wherever paying customers may be found.†(Schlosser) The fast food industry is one of the fastest growing ones in the United States, contributing to the rise in obesity as well as in other di... ...n your food. Fast food has become part of a lifestyle, some may say tradition, and future generations wouldn’t know what life was like before fast food or without it. With the fast bound lives no one has time to sit and have a home cooked meal with family, kids don’t sit around the table and talk with their families, and of course not everyone is too busy and have better things to do. Apart from consuming fast food, fast food chains are disparaged for worker exploitation, many workers have gone on strike throughout the years, enquiring better pay and better treatment. Flashing a light on the life a fast food worker, greater percentage of fast food workers earn minimum wage than in any other American industry. The focus is on mass production rather than individual gratitude and progression. Having said all that, it comes down to one thing, you are what you eat!

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Impact of bollywod on society

Movies have been the source of entertainment from time unmemorable. This is considered as a family bonding time these days. Few enjoy watching movies at home as a family to save economy, and some people Like going to theatres as a family calling it a day to relax and having fun. In both ways movies are tools of relaxation. Is this the case or movies are tools that instigates violence, differences in societies, bring out sexual indecency in the very living room of houses?Allegorical stories, novels and movies can cause a huge revival and Inculcate revolutionary thoughts If the correct message Is conveyed In a right fashion and with implicitly that the uneducated and educated can be enlightened alike. Allegorical movies can help tremendously to make the point across. Most of the Indian movies have some theme and moral they have to convey to the public. They bring awareness to the people what in going on in the world. Not everyone is educated and this media Is a powerful tool to bring t o light things happening so that even the uneducated In a remote village knows about everything.Some movies talk about the social justice being denied to the poor, talking about the racial and caste rejoice people face everyday in life all around the world. Some historical movies bring to life the ancient history that is slowly fading away bringing out the beauty of the culture of different civilizations of the past. There are movies that talk about the evils Like child marriages, women being abused and treated badly by the male dominating world. He corruption In the government and higher authorities, the cover up of the companies not to let the public know about the inferior quality of their products or how they pollute the environment and the autocratic nature of the landlords. There are times when there was a huge revolution happening because the public started thinking and this big screen has huge Impact on how people voted In the elections also. Evils Like child sex traffic Is beautifully brought out along with the old practices and taboos of the societies that still exist in a country that talks about technology and growth.We come to know about the murders happening because of the dowry system, how women are abused at workplace, how there are child abuse in houses that are respected in society saying Just because people live in marble houses, soonest mean they do not have same struggles Like others do. How love is treated as crime in a culture where men and women are not allowed to talk and how this evil brings a male dominant society to always have a winning shot, while women have to stay submissive even if beaten up.How arranged marriages to strangers can cause pains and how adjustment in new place is a Herculean task and how a woman shows her strength to build her and her family with patience and love all these are shown delicately and powerfully saying being a house wife Is also a full UT how a man Juggles between his Job, and his family life and so me times how his sacrifices goes unnoticed all are shown in Indian movies impregnated with morals and principles. Thus movies bring out delicate things that are happening in the lives of people in a very artistic way.This is truth that many are fans of these heroes and heroines and every punch dialogues and message they send out becomes a Veda for the layman. Keeping this in mind if people make movies that channel these lives that look unto these artists as role models, there is sure to come a dramatic changes in their lives ND how they will face the world with goodness and positive attitudes. These movies can easily make or easily break the lives of those who are fascinated by movies and not take it as entertainment.Some movies also bring out the evils of terrorism, how a nation should stay strong and united and how hard work is always the essence of progress. ‘Evil never wins' is the theme in most of them. ?But it can also cause imitation of the violence and the thwarted min d can follow a movie and do the same evil to the society. What we say and what we try to convey should not drive them to take weapons but should make hem see that evil dies and those who take a weapon will die of that for sure.Of course it would not be complete if I do not mention about some movies that are produced for commercial purposes having some sexual content to it, fascinating dream and stunt scenes adding flavor to the movie, but still the themes could definitely convey a message holding some moral lesson. Revealing body and scanty clothing does not help the confused adolescent to keep calm, every one would have felt this way at one point of time, nothing to feel ashamed of this.But when these reportage the child to explore things, which he is not supposed to makes things more and more detrimental. It should also kept in mind, how movies are made and not include sexual content in movies that is family type ones. Unwanted double meaning dialogues and unwanted contents should be avoided no matter how much commerce it brings to the bank. I do believe if we use this powerful and double-edged tool correctly it would always be a great source of enlightenment and empowerment and many good messages can be sent to the world that would make the society a better one.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Ethics Position Paper

Ethics Position Paper Q575 – Dr. Elliot June 7, 2010 University of Phoenix Introduction Today, people can make decisions that can have a profoundly positive or negative effect on their family, their employer, coworkers, a nation, and even on the entire world. The life we lead whether professional or personal reflects the strength of a single trait: our personal character. Ethics are different for each person both on a professional and personal level. For the most part, people want to be known as a good person, someone who can be trusted, and that he or she is concerned about his or her relationships and personal reputations. I therefore conclude that professional ethics are indeed influenced by personal ethics and values. Although professional ethics guidelines are provided by our government (federal and local), employer and education, personal values and ethics are also considered at the same time. What are Ethics? Let’s begin with the definition of ethics. Ethics can be defined with more than one meaning based upon the context and subject it is being used. In philosophy, ethics is the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society requires of its members. A second definition or meaning of ethics is motivation-based on ideas of right and wrong. Portman defines ethics as â€Å"standards of conduct, standards that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues, which themselves are derived from principles of right and wrong. In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behavior† (http://sun. menloschool. org/~sportman/ethics/definition. html). I agree with this definition in fact I believe that ethics are different for every person due to personal values and experiences. There are general ethics that most people adhere to because of the societal mores and morals we all have been exposed to and abide by. There are also other morals and mores that are picked up along the way that vary between people because of cultures, communities, families, heredity etc. I feel that I may not look at the same situation or case the same as another person and we may never agree upon the same methods to go about resolving an issue. This occurs because we all have differences of opinions and value systems. For example, I have nothing against people who are gay I just do not encourage nor discourage the behavior; I allow others to live their lives according to what is best for them. The same goes with ethics. Although my job may say I must intervene in a situation but my own personal ethics prevent me from acting professionally because I feel people should be allowed to live and learn. Overall, ethics and ethical positions will vary from researcher to researcher because they do not have all of the same goals nor do they see things in the â€Å"same light†. Ethics in Educational Research Although I think that ethics vary between individuals I believe that professional ethics are important in protecting those participants of research. I do not think that research should be based on the personal interests of the researcher but I think every person has a level of discernment that should be used especially when other lives are involved. General ethics play a huge role in education because first education is where ethics are taught. After learning about ethics students can then analyze the ethics they can identify and it soon becomes apparent that ethics are involved in most life situations. As future teacher honesty would be my biggest ethical commitment. I choose honesty because with today’s technology and increased use of online educational institutions, people can copy and paste whatever they need in order to be successful. Student’s academic honesty will help me to give them the accurate grade they deserve and not have to punish students who are caught cheating/plagiarizing information. Ethics also keep researchers from publishing false information and also prevent them from being lazy about the research. Mainly it protects the participants of research and also protects the researcher from being accused of unethical practice if they indeed follow those practices. Ethics and Today I recently heard a report on the news that the World Health Organization is being accused of over exaggerating the Swine flu pandemic. When I first heard about Swine flu I believed that is was a scare tactic in order to get people to get those shots. WHO performed unethically in my opinion however they believe that many people died from this disease and the swine flu should not be minimized. Ethics today are still very important especially when other people’s lives are involved. While some people find it easy to break ethical standards others follow the guidelines and remain neutral. The swine flu pandemic created worried people and families going in masses to get the vaccine. Today we still need ethics because not every has the best interest of others when conducting research. Federal standards require research to abide by ethical standards. It is up to each individual to utilize those standards and incorporate them into personal values that may influence society later. Conclusion Ethics vary from person to person due to the differences in values and cultural backgrounds and even education. We do not all interpret information the same way and therefore will not be able to apply the same amount or ethics in any given situation. Furthermore professional and personal ethics affect each other depending upon the specific situation being researched. Also every subject will yield a different set of ethics and values. Therefore ethics are not only subjective in content but objective in nature. References McMillan, J. , & Schmacher, S. (2006). Ch. 6 Ethical and Legal Considerations. Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. McMillan, J. , & Schmacher, S. (2006). Ch. 12 Research Ethics: Roles and Reciprocity. Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Portman, S. (unknown). What are ethics? Retrieved from http://sun. menloschool. org/~sportman/ethics/definition. html

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Critical Thinking Midterm Notes

Pseudoscience is where a claim is set forth as a reason for believing another claim but that is either logically irrelevant to the truth of the other claim or otherwise fails to provide reasonable support. In this part of the course we are beginning to examine arguments, or, stated more accurately, â€Å"would-be arguments,† where people advance reasons for their beliefs that In fact do not support them. There are two mall types of pseudoscience: those that appeal to emotions and those constructed Like real arguments but failing In the essential task of providing real support.Lessons 10 and 1 1 will examine extemporaneousness types that appeal to emotions. Lesson 12 will study extemporaneousness types constructed Like real arguments. Because extemporaneousness Is defined negatively (what It Is not) It does not lend Itself to technical categorization. The classification offered In these lessons are not exhaustive and may overlap or fall to capture precisely what has gone wrong In an argument. While we must have a common language to communicate about different types of pseudoscience, the point of these lessons is to alert you to a number of ways in which reasoning fails.When you have finished this course, you may quickly forget the many names and labels but remain alert to failures in reasoning. Common Forms of Pseudoscience/Fallacies 1 . Smokescreen/Red Herring 2. The Subjectivist Fallacy 3. Appeal to Belief 4. Common Practice 5. Peer Pressure and Bandwagon 6. Wishful Thinking 7. Scare Tactics 8. Appeal to Pity 9. Apple Polishing 10. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm 11 . Appeal to Anger or Indignation 12. Two Wrongs Make a Right The above list is not exhaustive. Each will be explained In the next section. Definitions/Descriptions of Extemporaneousness Types 1 .Smokescreen/Red Herring: Most pseudonymous Introduce Irrelevant considerations Into a discussion, but a smokescreen or red herring does not fit Into one of the more specific categories. Typically It Inv olves the deliberate Introduction of Irrelevant topic or consideration In order to throw the discussion off course. Example: Professor Conway complains of Inadequate parking on our campus. Duty did you know that last year Conway carried on a torrid love affair with a member of the English Department? Enough said about Conway. Notice the change from the stoic of inadequate parking to the irrelevant topic of a torrid love affair 2.The Subjectivist Fallacy: The structure of this fallacy is â€Å"That may be true for you, but it is not for me,† fact and matters of opinion. In the subjective world of pure opinion (for example, what I think of a particular movie), I am entitled to my opinion. However, in the objective world of facts (for example, the day of the week), I do not enjoy the same latitude. I am not entitled to my own facts. 3. Appeal to Belief: The pattern is: â€Å"X is true because everyone (many people, most societies, others) think that it is true. † It is a distorted version of the reasonable practice of accepting the claim from a seasonable authority.Because people may in fact be experts on a subject, you must take care in distinguishing between good and bad versions of this reasoning. For example, â€Å"Physicians consider food high in saturated fat unsafe,† is a good appeal to belief. On the other hand, â€Å"Physicians consider overseas stocks unsafe,† is a bad appeal to belief. 4. Common Practice is where an action is defended by calling attention to the fact that the action is a common one (not to be confused with appeals for fair play). It seeks to Justify an action on the grounds of its familiarity or typicality.It differs from appeal to belief in that it specifically aims at calling an action acceptable, without mentioning the beliefs people may have about what they commonly do. The most common form of this pseudoscience is, â€Å"Everyone does it. † For example, â€Å"Everyone cheats on their taxes,† is used as Justification for me cheating on my taxes. 5. Peer Pressure/Bandwagon is a pattern of pseudoscience in which you are in effect threatened with rejection by your friends, relatives, etc. , if you don't accept a certain claim. People often act in a certain way because their friends do.A rood has often been swept up behind a candidate or consumer product, the victim of fashion. But this behavior in itself is not pseudoscience. When you go along with friends or a mob to gain social acceptance, you are reasoning correctly about what will get you accepted, whether or not that acceptance is what is best. The phenomenon turns into pseudoscience only when one cites the peers' or crowd's activity as a reason for the truth of a claim. Voting for the most popular political candidate in order to feel at one with your community is, though unwise perhaps, not pseudoscience.Arguing that the candidate is the best one on the grounds of that popularity is pseudoscience. 6. Wishful Thinki ng: Believing that something is true because you want it to be true (or believing that it is false because you don't want it to be true). For example, I refuse to believe that too much exposure to the sun causes skin cancer, because I would have to give up my habit of sunbathing at the beach. 7. Scare Tactics is a pattern of pseudoscience in which someone says, in effect, â€Å"X is so because of Y (where Y induces fear in the listener). The emotion being appealed to is fear. However, you need to watch for the difference between Justified and unjustified appeals to fear. â€Å"If you don't check your parachute before Jumping out of the plane, you may die† is an excellent argument. But the pressure used by car salesperson, for example, indicating that the deal offered is only available today usually involves scare tactics, the inducing of fear in order to make a sale. 8. Appeal to Pity is where someone tries to induce acceptance of a claim by eliciting compassion or pity.The appeal to pity works exactly like a scare tactic, except for the different emotions at stake. As in the appeal to pity, this appeal becomes pseudoscience when the pity is irrelevant. Logic and Critical Thinking does not hold to the notion that you can show no pity and pity is not always irrelevant! 9. Reason for accepting a claim. ( It also has less â€Å"flattering† names! ) Note that apple polishing can take subtle forms, for example, â€Å"You're too intelligent to believe in mental telepathy. † Appeals to flattery have fewer legitimate versions than the last two (appeals to fear and pity), but they do exist.For example, â€Å"You should wear the gold sweater instead of the red one, because it brings out your beautiful eyes. 10. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm is a pattern of pseudoscience in which ridicule is disguised as a reason for rejecting a claim. It is a way to avoid arguing about a position by simply laughing at it. â€Å"Support the Equal Rights Amendment? Sure, as soon as the ladies start buying the drinks! Ha, ha, ha. † Rush Lumbago relies heavily on this one. 11. Appeal to Anger or Indignation: A pattern of pseudoscience in which someone tries to induce acceptance of a claim by arousing indignation or anger.It obscures the relevant issues by arousing one's anger, particularly at some person or group. Keep in mind that expressions of anger (like emotionally charged language) do not by themselves make something an appeal to anger or indignation. The appeal to anger or indignation counts as pseudoscience because it reverses the appropriate relationship between wrongdoing and anger. It is one thing to get angry because you see something wrong being done; but the appeal to anger tries to make you call something wrong because you feel angry.Most commonly, such appeals arouse anger against a person before getting to the specifics of the argument, rather than giving vent to indignation after showing that something wrong as been done, a common tactic in the rhetoric of politicians. 12. Two Wrongs Make a Right pattern: â€Å"It's acceptable to A to do X to B because B would do X to A,† said where Ass doing X to B is not necessary to prevent Bi's doing X to A. One Justifies some action that hurts another person on the grounds that the other person has done (or is likely to do) the same kind of harm.Because many people will see Justice in cases of returning harm for harm, this kind of pseudoscience is difficult to distinguish from legitimate reasoning. â€Å"Two wrongs make a right† is not identical with revenge, UT applies specifically to those circumstances in which the revenging act is illegitimate. Responding to rude service at a restaurant by telling your friends not to eat there may be vengeful, but does not fall under this category of pseudoscience. But if you slip out without paying and Justify yourself on the grounds that the waiters were rude, you are engaging in pseudoscience.Unnamed Classi fy the pseudoscience in the following examples: 1 . â€Å"L can't believe the mayor wants to use the Police Department as security guards for our schools. While he's at it, why not have them collect our garbage? 2. Biker: I refuse to buy Japanese motorcycles. I don't believe in doing business with Communist countries. Reporter: But Japan isn't Communist. Biker: Well to me they are. 3. Officer: Excuse me, sir. Do you know how fast you were going? Driver: I never get over the sight of you mounted policemen. How do you leap down off the horse's back so fast? And you must have them well trained, not to run away when you dismount. . â€Å"Dear Editors: When AH Saccharin wrote in to criticize city workers, he didn't mention his occupation. Maybe he's a millionaire without a care in the world, hat he has the time to criticize people working for him if he's even a taxpayer. † 5. Ladies and gentlemen of the Jury: My client stands before you accused of three bank story, who will have a hard time getting food on their table if their daddy goes to prison. 6. My opponent would like to see TV networks label their programming, on the grounds that violent shows make children who watch them violent. But everyone knows a couple of shows can't change your personality. . I had to get a garage built last summer. Who wants to be the last person on the block to park his car in the open air? 8. There must be life on other planets. Imagine how lonely we'll find the universe if we discover that we're the only ones here. 9. Judge Cunningham keeps striking down our state gun control laws. She had better say good-bye to any hopes for a Supreme Court appointment, as long as we have a democrat in the White House. 10. My opponent would like to see TV networks label their programming, on the grounds that violent shows make children who watch them violent.Next they won't allow any shows from France, on the grounds that children who watch them will become French. 11. I'm a disabled Viet nam veteran. Why can I only get a six-month license to sell pretzels from my pushcart? You have to be a foreigner with a green card to make a living in this country. 12. The United States is under no obligation to pay its debts to the United Nations. Here we are, the biggest contributor to the UN budget, and we only get one vote out of 185. 13. How can Moslems be opposed to alcoholic beverages? People have been drinking them since before the beginning of history. 4. Why do you take a bus to work when most people drive? 15. Give that woman a dollar. I see her on this corner every day crying. And she seems to be ill. 16. Ladies and gentlemen, that concludes my proposal. You know that I trust and honor your Judgment. Even if you do not approve my request, I am happy Just to have had the chance to present this proposal to such qualified experts. Thank you. 17. Letter to the editor: Your magazine expresses sympathy for Annie Larson, a putative â€Å"fashion victim† because â€Å" animal rights terrorists† splashed paint on her mink coat.But when I think of those dozens of animals maimed and anally electrocuted to satisfy someone's vanity, I know who the real victims are, and who's he terrorist. Answers to Exercise Questions 1. Horse laugh. 2. Subjective fallacy 3. Apple polishing. This also counts as smokescreen, but that's not the best answer here 4. Appeal to indignation. 5. Appeal to pity. 6. Appeal to belief. 7. No pseudoscience. The person wants to keep up with the neighbors, but is not asserting that a garage is a good thing in itself. 8. Wishful thinking. 9. Scare tactic. 10. Horse laugh 11. Appeal to anger and appeal to pity. 12. Two wrongs make a right 13.Common practice. 14. Common practice. 17. Two wrongs make a right. Unrepresentative Persuasion: An attempt to win acceptance for a claim, but not giving reasons in support. Instead of reasons, devices in the claims themselves are relied upon, such as, emotive language, positive or negative. P olitical campaign literature makes generous use of emotive language, with few reasons presented in support of the issues or candidates. For example, Copal, a conservative Republican support group, developed a directory of words to be used in writing literature and letters, in preparing speeches, and in producing material for the electronic media.When writing about your own candidate r issue, emotively positive words (commonsense, courage, dream, duty, family, strength, truth, vision, liberty) are recommended. However, negatively charged words (betray, cheat, disgrace, failure, excuses, liberal, welfare self-serving) are used when defining your opponent. It is a valuable exercise for this class to examine some campaign literature. You may find some interesting material on the web. If you do, share it with us on the bulletin board. Some words of caution: Our writing should not be boring.An argument couched in emotive language is not necessarily false, but nuns the risk of adding more heat than clarity to the issue. Using the information in this section increase sensitivity to the difference between illegitimate unrepresentative persuasion and appropriate use of lively or emotively charged language. Slattern: Linguistic device used to affect opinions, attitudes, and behavior without argumentation. I t does not necessarily mean that slattern mislead, rather we primarily examine slattern to become aware of the shadings of language.Good arguments may come in slanted language, but such arguments should not be accepted uncritically. 1 . Euphemisms (good sounds) are words used as substitutes for expressions that may offend, for example, naturalization is substituted for assassination, freedom fighters for guerrillas. By substituting guerrillas with the emotively positive words â€Å"freedom fighters,† emotively positive words, you want to build support for them. Euphemisms are entirely acceptable when they foster civility or diplomacy, for example, â€Å"passin g away† as opposed to â€Å"died† when speaking of a recent bereavement. . Dismisses: The opposite of euphemism is dismisses, that is, words are used to produce a negative effect or attitude. For example, freedom fighter is a euphemism for guerrilla or terrorist, while terrorist, a negatively charged word, is a dismisses. 3. Persuasive comparisons, definitions, and explanations are used to slant what they say. A persuasive comparison slants, positively or negatively, by linking our feeling about a person or thing to the person or thing we compare it to: â€Å"Her complexion is as pale as whale blubber,† or â€Å"Her complexion is like new fallen snow. 4. A persuasive definition uses loaded language when defining a term: â€Å"Abortion is the killing of innocent human life,† or â€Å"Abortion is a safe and effective reoccurred for relieving a woman of an unwanted burden. † To facilitate seeing an issue from all sides, avoid definitions that slant th e discussion. 5. Persuasive explanations use similarly loaded language to tell the reason for an event: â€Å"He lost the fight because he lost his nerve† or â€Å"He lost because he was too cautious. † 6. Assuming that every member of the class has the same set of characteristics: â€Å"All women are poor managers,† or â€Å"All liberals are fiscally irresponsible. † 7. Innuendo involves the insinuation of something derogatory: â€Å"She is competent, in many ways,† r â€Å"He told the truth – this time,† or â€Å"Far be it from me to suggest that my opponent is lying. † 8. A loaded question follows the logic of innuendo, illegitimately suggesting something through the very existence of the question: â€Å"When did you stop beating our wife. The secret to understanding loaded questions is to recognize that there are two questions involved. In the example above the two questions are 1) Did you beat your wife, and 2) When did y ou stop beating her. The loaded question illegitimately assumes a positive answer to number 1) and then illegitimately expects n answer to number 2). 9. A weaseled is a linguistic method of watering down or weakening of a claim in order to spare it criticism. Words like â€Å"may† and â€Å"possibly,† and qualifying phrases like â€Å"as far as we know† or † within reasonable limits,† are some common examples of weasels afoot.Weasels, often used in advertising, suck out all the strength a claim to the point of saying little or nothing: â€Å"Three out of four dentists surveyed recommend sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum. â€Å". 10. A downplayed is a linguistic device to make something seem less important than it ally is: â€Å"Evolution is merely a theory,† or using such words as â€Å"however† and â€Å"although. † 11. Proof surrogates: expressions used to suggest there is evidence or authority for a claim without citing it. For example, â€Å"informed sources,† â€Å"it's obvious that† or â€Å"studies show. When writing research papers be careful to cite your sources and avoid the charge of proof surrogate. 12. Hyperbole is an extravagant overstatement. For example, describing a hangnail as a major injury, or a teenager describing parents as â€Å"fascists† because of a midnight curfew. Note: Is there a method for telling one kind of slanted from another? You will find that the distinctions are partial, often overlapping, and to some extent vague. The organization of slattern into types is meant to assist critical reasoning, not to replace it with role acts of labeling.In order to arrive at the best name for the slanted in a given example, eliminate those possibilities whose very form gives them away: A loaded question must be in the form of a question; a persuasive comparison is a comparison; persuasive definitions and explanations are definitions and explanations be fore they are anything else. If none of these categories fits the example, the slanted assuming there is one – must be euphemism, dismisses, stereotype, innuendo, weaseled, downplayed, hyperbole, or proof surrogate. So, look for the obvious structural cues, loaded (emotive) language, and the intended effects.The process of elimination will lead you to the best description of the slanted. Exercise 9-1 Determine which of the numbered, italicized words and phrases are used as slattern in the following passage: The big money guys (1) who have smuggled (2) the Rancho Vaccine development onto the November ballot will stop at nothing to have this town run Just exactly as they want (3). It is possible (4) that Rancho Venin will cause traffic congestion on the east side of town, and it's perfectly clear that (5) the number of houses that will be built will overload the sewer system. But (6) a small number of individuals have taken up the fight. 7.Can the developers be stopped in their desire Innuendo, dismisses 1. Dismisses, 2. Hyperbole 3. Weaseled 4. Proof surrogate 5. No slanted in this instance. 6. Loaded question. See if you can identify the two questions involved. Exercise 9-2 Identify any slattern you find in the following selections: 1. It's possible that your insurance agent misfiled your claim. Surely he would not have lied to you about it. 2. â€Å"National Health Care: The compassion of the IRS and the efficiency of the post office, all at Pentagon prices. † 3. We'll have to work harder to get Representative Burger reelected because of this little run-in with the law. . During World War II, the United States government resettled many people of Japanese ancestry in internment camps. 5. Morgan has decided to run for state senator. I'm sorry to hear that he's decided to become a politician. 6. I'll tell you what capitalism is: Capitalism is Charlie Manson tinting in Folsom Prison for all those murders and still making a bunch of bucks off T- shir ts promoted by Guns N' Roses. Answers to Exercise 9-2 1 . Innuendo (bringing up the subject of lying while being able to deny that the accusation is being made). 2. Persuasive definition. 3.Euphemism (little run-in with the law). 4. Euphemism (resettled, and internment camps), To statement avoids the fact that Japanese were forced into concentration camps, not resettled voluntarily. 5. No slanted. You might disagree! Give your input on the bulletin board or by e-mail. 6. Persuasive definition. Information Tailoring and the News One major way of influencing a person's behavior or attitude is select the information one receives. In an open society it is difficult to dictate the information people receive. At the same time, if you get your information from one source this is what happens.The best way of defending yourself against unrepresentative persuasion is to be well informed and to read widely, using many sources. We get most of our information on a daily basis from the mass media BBC, CBS, NBC, CNN and the major newspapers. A newspaper professes to present the facts objectively. However, all information must pass through the subjective mind, so objectivity is an ideal rather than a strict reality. The tabloids do not strive for the same level of objectivity by checking their sources. The same can be said for many of the TV news magazine programs, which have grown in popularity in recent years.From the television stations point of view, they are an excellent source of profits, because they are cheap to produce and remain popular for a dwindling audience. Keep in mind that the media are private businesses and as such are in the business of making money. For his reason the media cannot afford to offend their constituents: readers, advertisers, or the government, who provides them with licenses to operate or can make life difficult by withholding information, and the over zealous application of tax laws. Main stream views are promoted, while the controversial i s left to smaller news stories.Most of the information is given to them in press releases from politicians, Congress, the White House, local police forces, and local city halls. Companies of any size also issue press releases on a regular basis. A new source of information is the WWW. You might take the opportunity in this course of taking a look at the web site of newspapers in other parts of the world and compare how a particular story is covered differently than in the U. S. Media. Also, peruse your local newspaper and note where their information comes from.You may be surprised to see that much of the information is from other newspapers around the country and from UPS and other news wire services. CNN is a major news source for local TV newscasts. Beware of media bias, slanting, playing up and playing down of stories, sensational headlines, and the use of emotive language. Advertising: Advertising is useful to sell products, sell political candidates and ideas, make announcemen ts, and so on. It also is a major offender in engaging in unrepresentative persuasion. Ads often exaggerate, mislead and even lie.Some products are advertised so heavily that they skew choices. The psychology of ads is that they play on our fears, desires, prejudices and weaknesses. No expense is spared, and weasel words (fights bad breath, helps control dandruff with regular use, gets dishes virtually spotless) are generously used, especially in the fine print. There re two basic kinds of ads: those that give reasons, and those that do not. All ads are guilty of suppressed evidence, that is, they never give you sufficient information about a product whether it be a commodity or political candidate (30 second spots, for example).Ads will never tell you what is wrong with the product (for example, the commonly experienced mechanical problems of a particular model car). Ads give weak promises (your clothes will be â€Å"brighter† if you use a particular soap), use vague compari sons (good, better, best), and make illegitimate appeals to the authority of the rood (most people use the product) or to the authority of a particular individual (Steve Young in the ad for David). Ads that provide reasons, promise ads, submit reasons for buying the product. They tell us more than that the product exists, but not much more.Usually the promises are vague (Gillie's gin promising â€Å"more gin taste†). So, even ads that present reasons for buying a product do not in themselves justify our purchase of the item. If I have done all my homework ahead of time and then see a particularly good price on an item in an ad, then I would be Justified in eying the product – assuming I have a genuine need of it. Ads invite us to think fallaciously, which we will see more about in the next three lessons. There is no substitute for the application of the skills of logic and critical thinking, especially a careful analysis of unrepresentative persuasion. N advertising. E xercise You might take a particular ad that you like and see how it measures up under the scrutiny of logic and critical thinking. Feel free to share your findings on the bulletin board! Pseudoscience 2 Introduction: Many of the common types of pseudoscience go by the name of fallacy. As a rule, Hess attempts at argumentation do not begin with a psychological response to an issue (whether relevant to the truth of the claim or not). In many cases -false dichotomy, slippery slope they follow the structure of a good argument, but hominid, the pseudoscience resembles a smokescreen.The speaker makes a genuine argument, but one that lacks a proper connection with the truth-claim at hand. The categories presented here cover the most frequently occurring kinds of pseudoscience. These occur so frequently, in fact, that the major terms have entered everyday spoken English. The pseudoscience covered in this lesson often assembles good reasoning more than the examples presented in earlier lesso ns. These cases contain few or no appeals to emotion or other psychological motive. Very often the fallacies listed here garble the structure of a good argument, and may even be altered to become good arguments.Pseudoscience Types Part 2 1. Ad Hominid including Personal Attack, Circumstantial Ad Hominid, Sedimentation indisposing the Well. 2. Genetic Fallacy 3. Burden of Proof including Appeal to Ignorance 4. Straw Man 5. False Dilemma including Perfectionist Fallacy and Line-Drawing Fallacy 6. Slippery Slope 7. Begging the Question. Each will be defined/described in the following section Pseudoscience 2 – Definitions/Descriptions Ad Hominid Basic to the ad hominid (to the person) fallacy is the confusing of the message with the messenger.A claim or an argument is rejected because of some fact about the author or source of the claim or argument. The fallacy can take a number of forms, but they all share a confusion (often deliberate) between the truth of a claim under discuss ion and the person or group who put it forward. Since people may hold true beliefs even when their characters are unreliable, or when they belong to a group hat automatically holds those beliefs, the ad hominid dismissal is pseudoscience. The most obvious form of the ad hominid is the personal attack.As the name indicates, it maligns a person in order to dismiss the person's beliefs; there is something about the person who put forward the argument we do not like or of whom we disapprove. The circumstantial ad hominid attempts to discredit a person's claim or argument by referring to the person's circumstances rather than the claim or argument. This after becomes abusive, for example, â€Å"Of course he thinks the economy's fine. He's a Republican, and they don't care about poor people. But abusive treatment to the group in question is not essential to a circumstantial ad hominid. My doctor says that homeopathic cures don't work, but that's what they get drilled into them in medical school. † You may like your doctor despite saying this; but though the statement contains no abuse, it becomes an ad hominid by refusing to consider the truth of the doctor's opinion. A more complex form of ad hominid is sedimentation. The pattern is : â€Å"l reject your claim because you act as if you think it is false,† or â€Å"You can't make the claim now because you have in the past rejected t. † In this case, one dismisses a claim on the grounds of the other person's inconsistency.Inconsistency does bring down a claim or argument , if a person is advocating both a truth-claim and its denial at the same time. For example, when I it wears down my organs, you can dismiss my claims on the basis of their inconsistency. One variety of sedimentation is where the contradiction between two beliefs reaches back to something a person said in the past: â€Å"How can you say caffeine makes people sleepless, when back in high school I remember you claiming it had no e ffect at all? Another more common variety finds an inconsistency between people's statements and their behavior. You may say you are against drugs, but I notice you drinking alcohol everyday. † The person may be a hypocrite, but drugs can be dangerous nevertheless. Poisoning the well, another form of ad hominid, attempts to discredit in advance what a person might claim by relating unfavorable information about the person. Poisoning the well has the effect of giving anything else that person says an unreliable sound; thus you may think of it as blanket ad hominid in advance. The fact that a person is on death row and committed many murders does not dismiss that person's argument against the death penalty; the argument stands on its own merits.Genetic fallacy: The belief that a perceived defect or deficiency in the origin of a thing discredits the thing itself. Strictly speaking, the ad hominid is a specific form of the genetic fallacy. It rejects a claim solely on the grounds of its source, its origins, or its associations. In conversation, the genetic fallacy may sound as broad as â€Å"You Just think that's wrong because you were brought up that way. † Burden of Proof: A form of pseudoscience in which the burden of proving a point is placed on the wrong side, or places the burden of proof more heavily on one side than it should be.One version occurs when a lack of evidence on one side is taken as evidence for the other side, in cases where the burden of proving the point rests on the latter side. Often a discussion of some issue can turn into a discussion of which side faces the greater burden of proof. It helps to have reasonable grounds for assigning the burden of proof properly. All other things being equal, the greater burden of proof sets with someone whose claim has less initial plausibility. Suppose one person claims that the earth is flat, while another denies it.This claim will strike most people as implausible, so the first person face s the greater burden of proof. All other things being equal, the greater burden of proof rests with someone making an affirmative claim, rather than with the one denying that claim. Be careful when someone defends an affirmative claim by throwing the burden onto the other side, calling a claim true simply because it has not been shown to be false. This special variety of ruder-of-proof pseudoscience is called an appeal to ignorance (for example, God exists because no one has proved the opposite. Straw Man: The Straw Man pseudoscience is where someone ignores an opponent's actual position and presents in its place a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version of that position. There is a deliberate distorting of an opponent's position in order to make it easier to attack. A straw man fallacy typically involves a smokescreen, because recasting another person's opinion in distorted form amounts to changing the subject. At the same time, such faulty thinking can occur without any intent to